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    جغرافیا (فصلنامه علمي ـ پژوهشي و بين المللي انجمن جغرافيايي ايران)


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Designing a future-oriented electoral model in local management
      hassan kamran
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      In this article, in order to present a new model in local elections, the suggestions of electoral models have been used and the city of Tehran has been selected as the study. The source of data collection was in-depth interviews with experts and analysis of laws and reg Full Text
      In this article, in order to present a new model in local elections, the suggestions of electoral models have been used and the city of Tehran has been selected as the study. The source of data collection was in-depth interviews with experts and analysis of laws and regulations in this field, and the data were analyzed using the content analysis method. The present study with an applied-developmental approach and based on the field method to the question "How effective are the fundamental reforms in the council and municipal elections in the performance of local institutions?" Has answered. The research results show that, according to the experience of developed and successful countries in urban development and local affairs management, development steps should be taken from part to whole with experimentation and experience. In general, electoral reforms are very important in the performance of local government and increase the role of local citizens in appointing managers and commenting on the way local government is run. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Carl Schmitt's Thought and the Problem of Reactive Identities in Contemporary Political Geography
      Morteza Ghourchi mohammadtaghi  ghezelsofla Sepideh Sadat Mousavian
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      Carl Schmitt, a prominent German philosopher and jurist who had always been accused of supporting the Third Reich throughout his life, was acquitted at the Nuremberg Trials and lived in general isolation until 1985. But Schmitt's isolation never prevented him from writi Full Text
      Carl Schmitt, a prominent German philosopher and jurist who had always been accused of supporting the Third Reich throughout his life, was acquitted at the Nuremberg Trials and lived in general isolation until 1985. But Schmitt's isolation never prevented him from writing and disseminating his ideas throughout the twentieth century. Schmitt is one of the great thinkers whose views and thoughts have influenced various thinkers over the past decades, such as Hannah Arendt, Jürgen Habermas, and Giorgio Agamben. When Schmitt wrote the book Empress, he made it clear that politics must be defined in terms of the distinction between friend and foe. Today, neoliberalism, which firmly believes in downsizing government and market forces to regulate social relations and land management, has led to major social conflicts within and geopolitical conflicts outside the borders of countries. Neoliberal policies, along with the post-Fordist economy, have created a situation in recent years that has widened social divisions within countries as well as on a global scale. The increase in these gaps in the social strata has caused internal crises in countries and on the other hand has involved many countries in widespread social protests. According to great thinkers such as Fukuyama, such social conflicts have led to the formation of reactive identities within countries. Many of the works and writings of political geographers today show the attention of prominent thinkers such as Claudio Minka and Anaji Scor who focused on Schmitt's political philosophy, and the formation of reactive identities in relation to politics and the distinction between friend and foe. They search for globalization and post-Fordist economics. The main question of the article is why Schmitt's political philosophy and especially the political category in relation to reactive identities are at the center of the world's political geographical discourses? Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - An Analysis of Sustainable Urban Tourism Capacities, Case Study: Yazd
      علی موحد Ali Shamaei farzaneh sasanpour Mansour Arjmandi
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      The concept of capacity is an important tool for achieving sustainable tourism in the context of sustainable development. Lack of attention to the category of capacity in the tourism industry causes irreparable damage to the environment and natural tourism areas, as wel Full Text
      The concept of capacity is an important tool for achieving sustainable tourism in the context of sustainable development. Lack of attention to the category of capacity in the tourism industry causes irreparable damage to the environment and natural tourism areas, as well as dissatisfaction of visitors and indigenous people in the tourism area. The most important step in planning and expanding tourism in a particular region is to analyze the existing capacities in it. Because not paying attention to the capacities with incorrect planning and not paying attention to the ecological potential of the region, not balancing between the volume and type of recreational activities, not paying attention to the range capacity of the region, not paying attention to the facilities and infrastructure factors (type and quantity) necessary for physical development. Considering the seasonal nature of recreation and fluctuations throughout the year can be considered as a threat to the environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the tourism potential of Yazd. This research is of applied type and the method of doing it is descriptive-analytical. The research data were completed by a questionnaire of 400 tourists and citizens as well as 30 experts (as a sample size) and then analyzed by t-test, Delphi method and Shannon entropy. The results show that by relying on the high tourism capacities of Yazd in three levels of individual, environmental and organizational and attracting specialized forces in the field of tourism, using the potentials of the old texture of the city, and by identifying sustainable tourism, and holding Various festivals for economic prosperity and the like have eliminated many of the current shortcomings in meeting the needs of tourists and developed a sustainable urban tourism environment in Yazd. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Fundamentals and categories of the discourse of human civilization in shaping the geographical landscape
      Leyla مشکانی jameileh tavakolinia Mohamad Taghi Razaviyan
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      The word “landscape” today has broader and deeper meanings than in the past. In medieval times, it was used with German roots to mean "region" and "territory". After the 15th century, it became a visual genre; But today, it’s a scientific interpretation that not only de Full Text
      The word “landscape” today has broader and deeper meanings than in the past. In medieval times, it was used with German roots to mean "region" and "territory". After the 15th century, it became a visual genre; But today, it’s a scientific interpretation that not only describes a manifestation, but is a mental, aesthetic, artistic, and existential test that is constantly changing. Thus, each of its geographical landscapes can represent a story of civilization, culture, society, and the ideology of human groups. It is in this view that today, the landscaping and emphasis on the landscape, the elements of emergence and interaction of each with the whole set and the emphasis on the role of the people's craftsman in recreating it are among the inseparable principles of any urban planning system. The present study, based on the same importance, tries to analyze the effective factors of human civilization by using the philosophy of interpretivism and qualitative approach and applying the technique of in-depth content analysis by enumerating themes and concepts and categorization by open coding, categorization, central coding and selective coding. It has a geographical perspective. The results of this study, which used a purposeful and information-driven model from print sources in the field of human civilization and geographical landscape; highlights the importance and role of 10 influential categories of civilization in shaping the geographical landscape, which guides us to the geographical perspective of worldview, political thought, philosophical thought, consciousness, private and public agreement, cultural dimensions, social resilience, sovereignty, social context, and moral considerations. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Climatic damages of pedestrian bridges over Tehran Metro-police
      Gholamreza Barati محمود احمدی Faezeh Rahmati
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      Pedestrian bridges are among the factors that contribute to the soft traffic on the streets and express-ways of big cities. The purpose of this study was the monitoring and review of damages in foot-bridges and their vulnerabilities for pedestrians over the throughput o Full Text
      Pedestrian bridges are among the factors that contribute to the soft traffic on the streets and express-ways of big cities. The purpose of this study was the monitoring and review of damages in foot-bridges and their vulnerabilities for pedestrians over the throughput of Tehran as a vast city. It was determined 710 pedestrian bridges over Tehran metro-police based on google-earth images. When this area was divided equal units based a geographical grid, the frequency of bridges decreased to 62 ones as the frequency of selected bridges (SB). It means one SB from every unit. The information of SBs was gathered by designed and verified questionnaires through several field visits. We designed final patterns based on combine of SB information and the atmospheric data of weather stations including monthly temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity over Tehran and its suburb. The patterns revealed that the slipperiness of the bridge for the pedestrians, trunk oxidation, and bridge connection oxidation increase from the south to the north of Tehran. Similarly, relative humidity increases from the south to the northwest of Tehran. Meanwhile, damages to electricity wires and cables and damages to the floor asphalt, which are observed more in the center and northeast of Tehran, have been less consistent. The pattern of "synergy of all damages to Tehran pedestrian bridges" indicated that most of the damages have occurred in the urban districts 1, 2, and 4 of Tehran. All in all, the findings of this study and other related national and international research projects showed that pedestrian bridge structure is not congruent with the hot and dry climate in the south and the temperate and semi-arid one in the north of Tehran, but the underpass structure is more congruent, less costly, and socially and culturally more flexible. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Analyzing access to sport places in district 20th of Tehran Municipality
      Habibollah fasihi
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      Today sport is interrelated to modern urban lifestyles. In order to develop sports and physical activity and promote active lifestyle, three important goals, called the three A, are in attention that the first is to improve accessibility. In this paper by using buffer t Full Text
      Today sport is interrelated to modern urban lifestyles. In order to develop sports and physical activity and promote active lifestyle, three important goals, called the three A, are in attention that the first is to improve accessibility. In this paper by using buffer technique in GIS, the index of per capita access and a descriptive-analytical method Access to sports venues in the 20th district of Tehran has been analyzed. Findings of the research showed that the average per capita access to sports places was 0.6 m2, the maximum was 0.8 and at least 0.027 m2.The access rates is much lower from the global standards and the rates proposed for the Iranian cities But it is somewhat more favorable than Tehran's average. Apart from the general lack of per capita access, many inequalities are evident at the level of the study area. Although the entire area is accessible to sports venues, parts are only accessible to 1 sport place while in some parts the area access of 13 sport places are overlapped. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Future Studies on Human Resources Development in the Agricultural Sector in Rural Areas Case: Central part of Malayer township
      alireza takaloo Ali Shamsoddini bijan rahmani majid shariat
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      Future Studies on Human Resources Development in the Agricultural Sector of Malayer County Many current problems of the agricultural sector of the rural areas are due to past planners' lack of foresight and since the development or non-development of agricultural secti Full Text
      Future Studies on Human Resources Development in the Agricultural Sector of Malayer County Many current problems of the agricultural sector of the rural areas are due to past planners' lack of foresight and since the development or non-development of agricultural section has affected other parts of the country's economy and development, it is necessary to care fully evaluate the effective factors in this section and identify and resolve its damages and problems. Most people who work in the agricultural sector gradually have faced with some problems due to being old and inadequate education, and they are not fit for a new knowledge-based economy. It is caused by the young and educated people leaving the villages and going to the cities. This research is looking forward to foresight to avoid any potential problems that may arise in this field. The current study was done in three steps. The first step which is relevant to the theoretical part of the research, has been investigated through the laboratory and documentary review method on foresight and human resource development. The second step in the data section was done by observation, interview and questiomaire. Then in the third step, Delphi and structural analysis techniques and the Mick Mac and Wizard soft wares were used. Based on this research 24 main factors in the human resources development were identified and the variables of integrated management of rural development sustainable employment, advanced technology, elimination of discrimination between urban and rural areas and the expansion of production cooperatives with the most direct impact as remarkable criteria in this regard were identified and three groups of scenarios was proposed for the future of human resources in the agricultural sector of rural areas. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Water Crisis in the Central Plateau of Iran and the Necessity of Paying Attention to the Indigenous Knowledge of Qanat in Iran (Case study: Joupar’s GuharRiz Qanat)
      Hadi Veicy
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      Abstract Most of Iran's land is located in a dry and semi-arid region in the desert belt area of the world. Accordingly, drought and dehydration are inherent in the central plateau of Iran, and access to sustainable water resources has been the most important challenge Full Text
      Abstract Most of Iran's land is located in a dry and semi-arid region in the desert belt area of the world. Accordingly, drought and dehydration are inherent in the central plateau of Iran, and access to sustainable water resources has been the most important challenge for the residents of this area. Ancient Persians, with the invention of Qanats, provided a good way of accessing water based on the principle of respect for the environment and adaptation to nature, which was the source of a magnificent civilization in the central plateau of Iran. What is called sustainable development today has been well adhered to in the structure and system of Qanats, and hence the Qanat has been in operation for over three thousand years. This research, in addition to studying the properties of the Qanat and its structure in the economic and social life of Iran, has paid attention to the indigenous knowledge of Qanat. By studying the case of GuharRiz Qanat of Joupar in southern Kerman, it has been concluded that the revival of Qanats and reliance on indigenous knowledge of water management It can be the source of many environmental and water crises in the central plateau of Iran. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The relationship of crime and geography
      nemat nhrughe Farhad allahverdi mahdi kazemi
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      Today, it is one of the applied disciplines in forensic science and geography. Geography is referred to as a fundamental scientific discipline, because of the phenomena and processes that we go through we have to talk about the place where it was created and expanded an Full Text
      Today, it is one of the applied disciplines in forensic science and geography. Geography is referred to as a fundamental scientific discipline, because of the phenomena and processes that we go through we have to talk about the place where it was created and expanded and eventually left or disappeared and its location conditions. To identify. One of these phenomena is "crime or crime". The existence and manner of crime in different places varies. So that the "conditions of place" are of great importance in the presence and absence, expansion or non-spread of mass. However, we must bear in mind that every place in different economic, cultural, political, and environmental dimensions has various components and variables that directly or indirectly influence the amount of spatial weight or location power. Therefore, the greater the power of the place, the less likely the crime will be. This fundamental article, with a descriptive-analytical approach, seeks to express the relationship between crime and geography, especially in the big cities of the present age. The importance of the research is that by explaining the relevant theories and perspectives it seeks to answer the question why crime is increasing in some places and in others it is decreasing. In fact, we seek to prove the hypothesis that there is a strong relationship between geographic space and crime that criminals screen their first thoughts in the context of the subject before considering committing the crime, taking into account the location conditions. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Healthy City Planning with Sustainable Develop
      بهنام مغانی رحیمی
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      The status of urban areas has a decisive role in the health of residents. In such circumstances, the adoption of environmental planning and design approaches is essential for promoting the health of citizens. The application of healthy city criteria with regard to susta Full Text
      The status of urban areas has a decisive role in the health of residents. In such circumstances, the adoption of environmental planning and design approaches is essential for promoting the health of citizens. The application of healthy city criteria with regard to sustainable development through designing and upgrading the quality of urban spaces and residential areas can lead to the general health of citizens. Many social, economic and environmental indicators such as safety and security, social participation, environmental quality and access to facilities and services can be factors that affect the health and quality of life of individuals. This is an applied research and the research method is descriptive-analytical and the library and field method is used for data collection and WASPAS model is used for data analysis. The statistical population of the study is all residents of Kerman. The sample size is 384 people by Morgan table. The results show that in all three dimensions of sustainable development and healthy city, Kerman is far from standards However, in terms of the current status of the indicators in the four regions of Kerman, Zone 2, there is a better situation than other regions. Although it is not in ideal conditions, it is in better condition than other areas and after that, the first, third and fourth regions were located in the next places. Of course, in most of the indicators, the first and third regions were very close to each other, but the fourth area is in the lowest level in all dimensions. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      11 - Investigating the Effect of Surface Water in Sacred Defense Operations on the South Front
      usef hemati علی امیری hamed abaci
      Issue 67 , Volume 18 , Winter 2021
      One of the wars that have occurred in Iranian history is the extensive attack of the neighboring country, Iraq, which lasted from 1980 to 1987. In this period, which is mentioned in Iranian sources under the title of the Holy defense, there are offensive and defensive o Full Text
      One of the wars that have occurred in Iranian history is the extensive attack of the neighboring country, Iraq, which lasted from 1980 to 1987. In this period, which is mentioned in Iranian sources under the title of the Holy defense, there are offensive and defensive operations in the western border of Iran that can be divided into three Northern, Middle and South fronts. The most important and decisive operations of the war parties took place on the southern front, which is extended from the south of Mehran to Abadan and Ras al-Bisheh. Since the hydrological and geomorphological conditions of this front are such that it is possible to use water tactics or hydraulic warfare, this research has been developed to study the effect of surface water on the operations carried out there. How to collect information this research is based on its nature. That is, according to its historical nature, it has been compiled with library and documentary methods. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical method. The results showed that surface waters such as rivers, Hores and canals of water and dams in all phases of offensive operations, including designing, implementation and support, and especially defensive operations have had influential role and in each operation, have influenced several principles of nine principles of war. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Investigating the position of the concept of urban livability in the urban development plan (case study: Master plan of Zanjan city
      vahid yarigholi mohsen ahadnejhad roshti Jhila sajadi
      Issue 59 , Volume 16 , Autumn 2019
      Today, urban viability reflects a strong discourse on urban development and urban design, which has become prevalent in the history of urban planning. Implementation of urban development plans is one of the basic measures in urban planning and management for the city to Full Text
      Today, urban viability reflects a strong discourse on urban development and urban design, which has become prevalent in the history of urban planning. Implementation of urban development plans is one of the basic measures in urban planning and management for the city to be inhabitants of the city and guaranteeing the continued existence of the city for a long time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of Zanjan city in terms of livability indicators and how urban development plans can be implemented livability in Zanjan city. The research method of this research is descriptive-analytical and applied in terms of purpose. The results of this study indicate that the findings of the analysis of the mental indices based on the distribution of the questionnaire among the statistical population showed that the Objective and subjective indicators conditions are not nearly consistent. According to the results of regression analysis, the rate of communication and correlation of livability with urban development plans is 0.622. Considering the significant level of 0.000 and its low, it is rejected from the 0.05P <zero hypothesis. It can be said that the relationship between the two variables of livability with the urban development plans is significant. In other words, the implementation of urban development plans accounts for 37% of the Zanjan city's livability. In addition, the highest correlation between the implementation of urban development plans with the social index is 0.369 and the smallest amount is also economic-related with 0.167. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - A Comparative Evaluation of Highway Removal Experiences in Different Countries across the World
      سمانه جليلي صدرآباد
      Issue 57 , Volume 16 , Summer 2018
      It seems that in the recent decades, a new relationship has been taking shape between urban highways and neighborhoods around them. Despite the increase in automobile production and heavy traffic rates in metropolises, we have faced the removal of some elevated expressw Full Text
      It seems that in the recent decades, a new relationship has been taking shape between urban highways and neighborhoods around them. Despite the increase in automobile production and heavy traffic rates in metropolises, we have faced the removal of some elevated expressways for the purpose of creating surface-grade roads and urban spaces. This indicates the negative impacts of such highways on their adjacent neighborhoods, and even on the city itself as a whole. In fact, we can say that the negative impacts of highways were so large and remarkable that urban officials were forced to remove them in cities such as San Francisco, Boston, Toronto, Seoul, etc. In this paper, we have tried to review the experiences of different cities around the world in removing highways. So, we have applied a descriptive-analytic method and use T test in SPSS. To this end, we comparatively studied the experiences of different cities in removing highways in order to find the reason behind these removals and also to carefully determine the effects of constructing highways before and after their destruction. In cases studied, removing highways and replacing them with urban boulevards or public spaces have revitalized the neighborhoods around these highways and had positive social, economic, environmental and even traffic effects on the adjacent neighborhoods and even the city, itself. This result is justified and proven by the cases studied in this paper. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Scientific critique and "critical" structural-functional scanning
      ِAbaas Saidi
      Issue 58 , Volume 16 , Autumn 2018
      The Structural-Functional Scheduling Approach was proposed by the author in 2011 as a new framework in the study of space systems, in particular its settlement system. Since then, this approach has been more or less welcomed both in scientific-research circles and in ex Full Text
      The Structural-Functional Scheduling Approach was proposed by the author in 2011 as a new framework in the study of space systems, in particular its settlement system. Since then, this approach has been more or less welcomed both in scientific-research circles and in executive agencies. However, criticisms have been made about it. The motivation for writing this essay is actually to address the content of one of these critiques and an explanation of some of the principles of critique, although its audience is not necessarily an individual, but the scientific community of the country, especially students and scholars who are interested in more critique and possibly the use of this The approach is to advance their research. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Water Governance and Regional Development The Case of Karkheh Irrigation Area (Khuzestan, Iran)
      ِAbaas Saidi Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli Javad Etaat Kaveh Masoumi
      Issue 56 , Volume 16 , Spring 2017
      Water and its ancient exploitation methods in Iran, which a large part of its territory is characterized as arid and semi-arid, has continuously played a determinant role in establishment of cultural landscapes and as a whole, in its socio-economic developments. With Full Text
      Water and its ancient exploitation methods in Iran, which a large part of its territory is characterized as arid and semi-arid, has continuously played a determinant role in establishment of cultural landscapes and as a whole, in its socio-economic developments. With the beginning of modernization and turning to new planning methods, with introducing interim development plans (from 1948 onwards), along with the implementation of Land Reform Act (1962), and perhaps most importantly, the change in the state's basic incomes from taxes and duties (shareholdings) to oil, with growth of urbanization and expansion of industrial activities, the country witnessed unprecedented changes in large scale water management, with focusing a completely centralized framework and dominant role of state. . After the Islamic Revolution (1979), the process of increasing the country's capacity to exploit the water resources was expanding unprecedentedly. During the period, regional development programs, with emphasis on water resources, in new land areas, with comparative advantage, gave way to implementation of development plans throughout the country. Thus, the attitude toward water resource management and its governance has received somewhat new features. This article tries to study these processes and approaches to water governance and their role in balanced and sustainable development, and, as well as, their spatial implications as a case, in the Karkheh irrigation zone(Khuzestan). The study was conducted on the basis of a mixed (quantitative and qualitative) method, using structured questionnaires and interviews, group focused discussion sessions and non-cooperative observation and discussion. Efforts have been made to review the Karkheh Irrigation Development Plan, based on the points of views of all stakeholders at various national, regional and local levels (including managers and experts from different fields, such as university professors, experts in water, agriculture, environment, development planning, local community representatives and common beneficiaries of the project), by using the methods of individual and group interviews. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The role of construction and exploitation of the Alavian dam in the evolution of the spatial system of rural settlements in Maragheh and Bonab areas (1995-2017)
      Rasol غفاري راد ِAbaas Saidi
      Issue 59 , Volume 16 , Autumn 2019
      Dam construction is one of the most important development activities to respond to the increasing demand of potable, agricultural and industrial water. The effects and consequences (positive and negative) of a dam, as is directly visible in each component that are consi Full Text
      Dam construction is one of the most important development activities to respond to the increasing demand of potable, agricultural and industrial water. The effects and consequences (positive and negative) of a dam, as is directly visible in each component that are considered as a part of geographical spaces has also various visible and invisible signs and symptoms. In this regard dam construction has spatial dimensions and is considered within the spatial planning framework. So as various structures and functions (environmental, social, cultural, political, etc. are considered in spatial systems, therefore reviewing the structural-functional changes caused by the construction of dams and irrigation networks is necessary since it causes organization or disturbances/disruption of a spatial system. This paper aim to investigate the role of implementation and exploitation of Alavian dam irrigation network (which is operating with more than twenty-three years) in organizing the spatial system of rural settlements. The research method has been logical and by using quantitative and qualitative methods, the required information was collected. 370 households were selected using Cochran formula as the statistical sample. For analyzing the data, descriptive and inferential statistics has been used in SPSS (Kendal correlation test, Chi-square, Independence squared, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney). The results has been showed that structural-functional changes due to the implementation of the project, in terms of top-down approach did not lead to the organization and development of the spatial system of rural settlements in the study area. Also, there is a significant relationship between the location of settlements, political-administrative divisions of the districts and the developments of the spatial system and the dam, in such a way that the construction of the dam has caused uneven development and disturbance of the spatial system between upstream settlements of the dam (in reservoir area) and downstream of the dam (irrigation network) and in Maragheh and Bonab. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The explanation of conflict between the Iran and America in the Caspian geopolitical region
        hassan kamran محمدحسین  دشتی
      Issue 61 , Volume 17 , Summer 2019
      The Caspian Sea region is of high importance regarding energy related geopolitics, energy transporting lines and security within regional and international relation. After the fragmentation of USSR and the increase of number of the Caspian coastal countries from two to Full Text
      The Caspian Sea region is of high importance regarding energy related geopolitics, energy transporting lines and security within regional and international relation. After the fragmentation of USSR and the increase of number of the Caspian coastal countries from two to five, the issue of determining a legal resolution for the Caspian Sea became more complicated. Thus, the regional and trans-regional countries benefits and maximize their power within the international system in the region among which the encounter between America and Iran is the most salient. In this paper it has been tried to explain this problem in the region employing the analytical – descriptive technique based on theoretical approaches of energy – related geopolitics. In this direction, findings indicate that the conflicting policy of the two countries, America's attempt to eliminate the geopolitical situation of Iran from transportation of energy in the region, the effectiveness of America on debates relative to determining a legal resolution on the Caspian region by resorting to military and security solution and threatening Iran's interests and national security are among the most important reasons for this encounter. Finally the Islamic Republic of Iran can obtain its main interests within the legal resolution for Caspian Sea and find its place as the connecting chain among producers and consumers of energy, by a correct understanding of its geopolitical capabilities within foreign policy and active and smart diplomacy. In fact, it is the best way to achieve the economic development, as well as to tie the international economy to its national security and to minimize the relative threats. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Effects of Karoun Pipeline Transfer Projects on Creation or Expansion of Khouzestan Riverside Centers Using GIS & RS Technologies
      Atefeh Bosak Hourie Aarabi Moghaddam zahra hejazizadeh meysam toulabi nejad
      Issue 56 , Volume 16 , Spring 2017
      This study was carried out to investigate the impacts of Karoun water branches transference projects on creation or intensification of Khuzestan dust points. For this purpose, daily climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation, horizontal view, moist and wind) and re Full Text
      This study was carried out to investigate the impacts of Karoun water branches transference projects on creation or intensification of Khuzestan dust points. For this purpose, daily climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation, horizontal view, moist and wind) and required water debit for 9 synoptic and hydrometric stations within a 30-year statistical period were collected. Missing data were recovered and sorted by using Matlab,Minitab and Excel software. Also satellite data and images were used to study vegetation, soil moist and dust particles conditions in the specific area. According to the greenhouse gas procedures during 1985 to 2015, the studied period was broken into two periods, one before global warming (1985-1995) and the other after intensification of global warming (1996-2015). Then by using statistical methods and remote sensing the mentioned periods were investigated. The results from investigating long term debit of Karoun river showed that there is 171 m3/s decrease in second statistical period than the first one. During the second period, local dust has increased in comparison with the first period but vegetation index (NVDI) has 13% decrease. Also the vastness and value of soil moist in east of basin have increasing trend and the role of dam construction is evidently influential. This trend has been decreasing around Shadegan wetland in west of basin, as the result, with passing flows over this area, because of adherence reduction, soil particles disserve from the ground and cause most of the dust in Khuzestan and Karoun riverbasin. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Obstacles of Integgrated Rural-Urban Development in Sarw-abad Area (Kordestan)
      loghman zamani ِAbaas Saidi Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli
      Issue 60 , Volume 17 , Spring 2019
      Integrated development, in the sense of comprehensive approach to the logical integrity of spatial-temporal connections between sectors in environmental, economic, social, and physical planning procedures, emphasizes in fect, on the active participation of the people an Full Text
      Integrated development, in the sense of comprehensive approach to the logical integrity of spatial-temporal connections between sectors in environmental, economic, social, and physical planning procedures, emphasizes in fect, on the active participation of the people and unified management of areas. In addition, it focuses on the effective interaction between rural and urban areas, as otherwise it would be neither in favor of rural centers nor supporting urban centers. So, despite its outstanding capabilities, the Sarwabad’s spatial system was unable to achieve the goals of a desirable and integrated rural-urban development, lacking unified structural-functional planning. This article deals with the Sarwabad Area (including two cities of Sarwabad and Oraman-Takht and villages of the area). With regard to the integrated approach to rural-urban development, based on a comprehensive empirical field research, the paper has pursued the analysis and definition of the constraints of rural-urban development. The results show that, although there is a direct and significant relation between socio-cultural and physical-spatial indices, the security, economic and physical-ecological variables have the lowest correlation and the spatial flows have a medium link with the characteristics of integrated development. Therefore, As a result, integrated rural-urban development, as expected, has not been materialized. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Urban Growth and Its Influencing Factors
           
      Issue 55 , Volume 15 , Winter 2018
      The urbanization process and urban growth in different parts of the world result from the interconnected interactions between factors and various socio-economic, political, technological, geographical, cultural, global and local issues. Accordingly, identifying the driv Full Text
      The urbanization process and urban growth in different parts of the world result from the interconnected interactions between factors and various socio-economic, political, technological, geographical, cultural, global and local issues. Accordingly, identifying the driving and shaping factors of the growth of cities is vital for urban planning and sustainable development, especially in developing countries, which is used as a means of predicting future trends, controlling and guiding the growth of the city, organizing the future development of the city and eventually efficiently and purposefully managing the city. The main objective of this study is to identify the driving and shaping factors of the biophysical and socio-economic growth of Tehran metropolis. In order to achieve this goal, five main stages are taken into consideration, including the production of land use maps, land cover to study the land use spatial-temporal changes, land cover in Tehran and its surrounding areas using satellite images, identifying driving factors of urban growth using logistic regression, using a factor ecology approach to investigate the human factors effective on Tehran landscape, calculating spatial metrics for quantization of the structure and characteristics of the landscape pattern in Tehran metropolis using Fragstatas software and investigating the relationship between urban growth pattern and social areas using multivariate regression. The results indicate that the distance from the roads and the commercial center of Tehran in the period 2000 to 2014 is the most significant biophysical factor shaping the growth pattern of Tehran metropolis, and among the obtained five socioeconomic components, the population density and employment components have the most effect on urban growth pattern in Tehran metropolis. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - The geographical range of Islamic civilization
      naser sadeghiean hossein rahmanitirkalai
      Issue 58 , Volume 16 , Autumn 2018
      Islamic civilization is a religious civilization, all elements of which are centered on Islam. As Madina al-Nabi, the new city of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him), was founded on this basis and created a civilization based on the Quran and Sunnah. The I Full Text
      Islamic civilization is a religious civilization, all elements of which are centered on Islam. As Madina al-Nabi, the new city of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him), was founded on this basis and created a civilization based on the Quran and Sunnah. The Islamic conquest led to the confrontation of Muslim jihadis with the peoples of other regions such as Iran, Damascus, North Africa, Egypt and Andalusia. As a result of territorial expansion and the development of areas under the influence of Islamic caliphate, most of the elements of civilization were changed, and Islam was developed with immutable and flexible principles in the conquered territories. The result of this encounter and the combination of Islam with other cultures of various nations was a valuable civilization that was initiated in Medina al-Nabi, but in lands such as Iran, Mesopotamia , the Levant, Egypt and Spain. Manuscript Document
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