نوع مقاله : مقاله مستخرج از پایان نامه
1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.
2 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.
3 کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, the discussion of watershed management as a new approach and a paradigm for planning, development and proper land management, water resources management and vegetation restoration with special emphasis on economic, social and environmental issues seeks to create participatory solutions and follows sustainable development (Sirajzadeh,2018: 20). In the framework of a systematic approach to geographical spaces and its phenomena, which emphasizes the relationship between structural and functional components of phenomena in close communication and correlation with each other (Saeedi,2011: 11), natural and ecological environmental factors are among those forces involved in the formation of spatial systems (Sadough and Saeedi,2006: 9). Watershed management projects are one of the common executive actions in the context of land that directly related to the ecological foundations of space. Therefore, recognizing and analyzing the changes and consequences of watershed management activities in the framework of the spatial approach is crucial. In fact, watershed management activities have spatial dimensions and should be considered and evaluated as one of the important geographical issues. In hot and dry climates and deserts areas such as South Khorasan and Birjand city, where there are severely limited water, soil and vegetation resources, the "Chahkand" watershed management project, a sub-basins of Chaahak Mousavieh, is one of the substantial projects with the goal of comprehensive management, preservation, revitalization and exploitation of water, soil and vegetation resources. Moreover, this project is done around hydrologic areas and aims to make a natural and optimal balance among them. The project covers an area of 2720 hectares, which is the site of 9 settlements. Now, more than a decade after the implementation of the Chahkand watershed management project, this study has attempted to represent and recognize the spatial effects of this project on the structural-functional changes of rural settlements in the Chahkand Watershed.
It was a practical study and based on descriptive-analytical approach. The theoretical foundation and the information related to the background of the project were collected through library method. Additionally, questionnaires and open conversation with local residents were other sources of data collection procedure in the present study. For the purpose of this study, a questionnaire was designed and then filled by 111 participants. The collected data was coded
and analyzed with the use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel softwares. In order to analyze the regional stability, "stability radar" and "Morris model" techniques were used.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the implementation of the watershed management plan on the sustainability of the settlements of Chahkand area was more than average in social and environmental dimensions and less than average in economic dimension.
From a social point of view, the collaboration of some villagers in various projects was effective. Moreover, increasing the water of canals and springs through feeding projects in some years and the gradual restoration of rangelands were influential factors based on the environmental dimension.
However, in the economic dimension, according to people’s point of view the expectations of the project have not met. This finding has two main causes. Firstly, the periodic drought phenomenon that causes stagnation, makes a number of project ineffective, and damages the rangeland rehabilitates activities. Secondly, improper distribution of agricultural land ownership among the landlords in large villages in the basin (most of the land belongs to the absent owners).
In the economic dimension, the highest impact of the watershed management project on the spatial developments of the sample villages related to "change in land prices and real estate received by the village" variable and the lowest impact in the field belonged to the "creating sustainable employment" variable. Generally, based on the participants’ point of view the watershed management plan had been moderately effective in the development of rural spaces in the economic dimension. In the social dimension, "the degree of correlation in the village" variable and the "the amount of access to recreational facilities" had the highest and the lowest impact respectively. Furthermore, according to the respondents, the watershed management project has been moderately effective in the development of rural spaces in the social dimension. The highest impact of the watershed management project on the spatial changes of the sample villages in the environmental dimension related to “prevention of damages to canals and avoid the destruction” variable. The result indicated that the lowest impact in the filed belongs to “Quantity of canal water" variable and also to some other variables including "Increased River flow" "Extension of wildlife around the village" and "Restoration of landscapes and natural landscape outside the village" respectively. Using the Morris model to rank the studied villages in Chahkand catchment based on the effects of watershed management project on the dimensions of sustainability (such as economic, social and environmental dimensions) showed that among the villages Ashgabat, Roshanavand and Einid Bala villages got the highest Morris score respectively. According to the Morris model, the highest sustainability related to environmental sustainability in Einid Bala village and the lowest one belonged to economic sustainability in Roshanavand village. Finally, according to the findings of the study, the implementation of the watershed management project had the greatest impact on the status of stability in the social dimension and the least in the economic dimension.