عنوان مقاله [English]
The word “landscape” today has broader and deeper meanings than in the past. In medieval times, it was used with German roots to mean "region" and "territory". After the 15th century, it became a visual genre; But today, it’s a scientific interpretation that not only describes a manifestation, but is a mental, aesthetic, artistic, and existential test that is constantly changing. Thus, each of its geographical landscapes can represent a story of civilization, culture, society, and the ideology of human groups. It is in this view that today, the landscaping and emphasis on the landscape, the elements of emergence and interaction of each with the whole set and the emphasis on the role of the people's craftsman in recreating it are among the inseparable principles of any urban planning system. The present study, based on the same importance, tries to analyze the effective factors of human civilization by using the philosophy of interpretivism and qualitative approach and applying the technique of in-depth content analysis by enumerating themes and concepts and categorization by open coding, categorization, central coding and selective coding. It has a geographical perspective. The results of this study, which used a purposeful and information-driven model from print sources in the field of human civilization and geographical landscape; highlights the importance and role of 10 influential categories of civilization in shaping the geographical landscape, which guides us to the geographical perspective of worldview, political thought, philosophical thought, consciousness, private and public agreement, cultural dimensions, social resilience, sovereignty, social context, and moral considerations.