تأثیر عناصر کالبدی معماری بومی بر پایداری مسکن شهری مطالعه موردی: شهرسنندج

نوع مقاله : مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، واحد بین المللی جلفا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، جلفا، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد مراغه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مراغه، ایران.

3 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، واحد مرند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرند، ایران.

چکیده

با توجه، به اینکه ساختار کالبدی خانه های سنتی، طراحی هوشمندانه ای در خدمت منافع انسان و محیط زیست داشته اند و سازندگان این واحدهای بومی در هر زمان و مکان تلاش می کرده اند تا از طریق ایجاد رابطه ای دوستانه بین محیط زیست، فرهنگ و فرم معماری فضاهای، زندگی را در جهت انسانی شدن سوق دهند. با این رویکرد هداف این تحقیق بررسی عناصر و عوامل تأثیر گذار کالبدی معماری بر مسکن پایدار معاصر در شهر سنندج می‌باشد. روش تحقیق حاضر توصیفی- تحلیلی و از نوع پیمایشی می‌باشد. جامعه آماری تحقیق جمعیت شهر سنندج معادل 412767 نفر می‌باشد. حجم نمونه شامل 381 نفر که از فرمول کوکران به دست آمد و محاسبات در نرم افزار SPSS و Mplus انجام گرفت. بر اساس یافته‌ ها عناصر کالبدی معماری بومی زیبا زیباشناسی با بار عاملی 87/0 بیشترین تأثیر را در مسکن پایدار معاصر شهر سنندج دارد. پس از آن به ترتیب عناصر کالبدی پوشش نمای ساختمانی با بار عاملی 82/0 در ردیف دوم، عناصر کالبدی استحکام بنا با بار عاملی 75/0 در ردیف سوم و عناصر کالبدی برخورداری از امکانات و خدمات لازم با بار عاملی 75/0 در ردیف چهارم قرار دارند. با توجه، به نتایج بدست آمده مساکن شهر سنندج با چالش هایی نظیر فقر، نابرابری درآمدی، مهاجرت های روستایی به شهر، غفلت از مدیریت کالبدی و فضایی و آسیب پذیری بالایی رو به رو هستند و می توان دریافت که ارتباط بین رویکرد های پایدار و توسعۀ کالبدی بسیار کم رنگ است .لذا برای تعدیل ناپایداری مسکن معاصر شهر سنندج، توجه به رفع مشکلات شاخص ‌های ابعاد کالبدی در قالب شاخص ‌های زیباشناسی، پوشش نمای ساختمان، استحکام بنا و برخورداری از امکانات مورد نیاز لازم و ضروری می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of physical elements of indigenous architecture on the sustainability of urban housing Case study: Shahr Sanandaj

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kaveh Ahmadi 1
  • ghorban Mahboubi 2
  • Bakhtyar Ezatpanah 3
1 Department of Architecture, Jolfa International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jolfa, Iran.
2 Department Architecture, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran.
3 Department of Geography and urban planning, Marand branch, Islamic azad university, Marand, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
The purpose of this study is to study and study the housing of Sanandaj in terms of stability of physical elements. Because the houses of Sanandaj have a unique architectural style and construction style, this architectural style is taken from their traditions and cultures and is studied according to natural features, and they have been able to have a beautiful view of the combination of nature and It brought human activities such as traditional housing and doubled the richness of culture and tourism. Location, general shape of housing and general texture of the city are also closely related to the type of livelihood and the form of production and its economic resources. However, despite various bottlenecks to achieve the desired development in Sanandaj, it is necessary to measure and evaluate the dimensions of housing sustainability in Sanandaj. Because housing, in addition to having a variety of natural attractions and landscapes, can become attractive places for development due to cultural backgrounds, traditions and customs. Traditional houses in the historical context of Sanandaj are a successful example of human endeavor to create a living space by creating maximum material and spiritual comfort in the face of harsh climatic conditions. Today, the neglect of these houses has become so great that if we procrastinate a little longer, all their cultural, identity and architectural values will soon be buried behind the original non-original constructions. Trying to record the features and patterns of these houses can be a way to preserve these patterns and prevent them from being forgotten due to destruction and guarantee their stability, along with protection, restoration and restoration solutions.
Therefore, determining the areas of development affecting the sustainability of urban housing and then providing the basis for private-public sector investment in Sanandaj can be one of the objectives of this study. With this approach, the mental gap of the present article is based on the following: What are the most important factors affecting the housing stability of Sanandaj in physical terms?
Methodology
The method of the present study is descriptive-analytical method according to the objectives of the research (measuring the structure of contemporary sustainable housing based on the physical components of indigenous architecture). The statistical population of the study includes the population of Sanandaj which is 412767 people. The sample size was obtained through Cochran's formula, which was equal to 383 people. The random sampling method was simple. In terms of time, the present article is cross-sectional. The questionnaire is set in 5 options on a Likert scale. For the validity of the questionnaire, the opinions of professors and experts were used by calculating the content validity ratio for each item, and the need for its presence in the questionnaire was determined based on the table of Lavsche. Cronbach's alpha was used for the reliability of the questions, which was equal to 0.88, which indicates the appropriate reliability of the research tool. It was concluded that the questionnaire has a high reliability. Calculations were performed in SPSS and Mplus software.
Results and discussion:
The results showed that the aesthetic factor with a factor load of 0.87 has the greatest impact on contemporary sustainable housing in Sanandaj. After that, the building facade covering factor with a factor load of 0.82 is in the second row, the building strength factor with a factor load of 0.75 is in the third row, and the factor of having the necessary facilities and services with a factor load of 0.75 are in the fourth row. . The following analysis of the indicators is as follows: in the aesthetic factor, the human scale with a factor load of 0.92, the coordination of the openings with the walls with a factor load of 0.91, the visual balance and symmetry with a factor load of 0.90, the architectural style With a factor load of 0.86, geometric proportions with a factor load of 0.76 were placed in the next rows in terms of influencing the aesthetic stability factor. In terms of the facade covering factor, the use of non-eco-friendly materials with a factor load of 0.85 has the greatest impact in terms of stability, followed by the combined use of eco-friendly and non-eco-friendly materials with a factor load of 0.83 and the use of materials. Ecotourism with a factor load of 0.78. In terms of the strength of the building in the stability of contemporary housing in Sanandaj, the effect of residential units in energy savings with a factor load of 0.82 and the durability of the structure with a factor load of 0.72 and the durability of materials with a factor load of 0.71 in the rows Next are the effects. In terms of having the necessary facilities and services, the rate of having facilities with a factor load of 0.69, the amount of access to facilities with a factor load of 0.67, the rate of having a residential unit with space with a factor load of 0.63 and satisfaction with housing architecture with Factor loads of 0.61 were placed in the next rows.

Conclusion
Residential houses in Sanandaj city had four aspects in terms of physicality, the strength of the building, beauty, having facilities to cover the facade of the building. These four aspects, in each building group, had their own characteristics that were appropriate to their social, economic, political and cultural situation. In fact, the type of culture and life of human beings will have a significant impact on the types of residential spaces. What is worth considering is the role of the architect in all four aspects of the building type, so that the architect was trying to meet the architectural demands while constructing the structure. However, considering the role of the contemporary architect in architectural design apart from the building structure, measures should be taken so that even structural design is part of the architectural design process.
Keywords: housing, physical, sustainable housing, architecture. City of Sanandaj.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • housing
  • body
  • sustainable housing
  • Architecture
  • Sanandaj city