عنوان مقاله [English]
Employment and unemployment are among the most important issues that must be considered to create a prosperous society because the first condition for the growth and development of any society is job creation, so it is of great importance in macro-planning. The debate over employment and its complexities in today's fast-paced world has attracted the attention of many policymakers, government officials, and experts. In many cases, however, the issue of employment is ignored in urban development strategies. This is partly due to the intangibility of the informal urban economy, which includes the bulk of employment in developing countries. Today, the role of employment in the dynamics of urban life is not hidden from anyone. Unemployment and its problems have formed one of the most complex issues of the day in urban planning, and this problem, in addition to economic consequences, has negative social, cultural, environmental, and security consequences that affect all aspects of urban planning. Therefore, it can be said that many problems of urban communities are rooted in the pathology structure of their employment. Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad provinces have high economic potentials, and if we pay attention to these potentials, the problem of youth unemployment in this region will be easily solved. According to the latest statistics, the unemployment rate in Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad is very high, so the high unemployment rate in Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad Province, while this province has rich oil and gas resources. However, according to the official statistics, this province is in the third place in terms of employment ratio after Sistan and Baluchestan and Qom provinces in terms of the lowest employment, which if the investment in different economic sectors is considered, this province may It can be considered as one of the active provinces in the employment sector. On the other hand, many differences are due to the imbalance of economic facilities and economic and cultural conditions that lead to migration, spatial inequalities of capital and welfare, educational and health facilities, which has increased the development gap between regions. Therefore, the research problem arises from the fact that it seems that the distribution of job opportunities in different regions of Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad provinces does not follow a favorable pattern, and this has affected the spatial balance in this area
According to the studied components and the nature of the subject, the present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of methodology and is quantitative research. In this research, the data of the statistical yearbook of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces in 1396 have been used and 3 economic indicators (agriculture/fisheries, industry/mining, services) have been used. The most important urban employment indicators have been determined and then based on the indicators, the situation of 8 cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces in terms of employment indicators has been evaluated using the MOORA method and using the CRITIC model. The indicators are prioritized. Also, to determine the development levels of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces, the Morris model has been used. The province is ranked in terms of urban employment based on the level of development.
Results and discussion
In this research, an attempt was made to rank and determine the level of development of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad cities by using a set of urban employment indicators. The number of indicators is a subset of three economic sectors (agriculture, industry, services), which have been ranked and analyzed using the MOORA multi-criteria decision-making technique. First, the most important employment indicators were determined. Then, the situation of the 8 cities of Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad provinces in terms of employment indicators has been evaluated using entropy methods and Mora decision making. The results showed that Boyer-Ahmad city has a more favorable situation than other cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces in three sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, services). The results of the Moora technique showed that there is a big difference between the cities of the province in terms of employment indicators. Boyer-Ahmad city is in the first rank compared to other cities of the province and has the highest rank in all employment indicators, followed by Kohgiluyeh and Gachsaran cities. The third rank in relation to employment and unemployment belongs to a number of cities in the province such as Dena, Bahmaei, Choram, Basht, and Lendeh. The mentioned cities do not have suitable conditions in terms of employment. According to the results, it can be acknowledged that there are regional and spatial imbalances in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces. Then, the research indicators were prioritized using the CRITIC method and the results showed that the agricultural index was in the first place in the effectiveness of employment indicators. Then, the level of development of Kohgiluyeh and BoyerAhmad provinces was divided into four levels in terms of employment indicators using the Morris coefficient. The results showed that out of 8 cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces, Boyer-Ahmad city in (three sectors of agriculture, industry, services) has a more favorable situation than other cities in the province and is at a desirable level. Kohgiluyeh city is located on the second level. Two cities (Gachsaran and Dena) are in the middle level and 4 cities (Bahmaei, Charam, Basht, Lande) are deprived in terms of employment index in three sectors: agriculture, industry and services.
The results showed that there is a difference between the cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces in terms of employment status. The level of employment in Boyer-Ahmad city, which is also the political center of the province, is more favorable than in other cities in the province.