عنوان مقاله [English]
With the increasing population of urbanization, the new socioeconomic, physical, and environmental challenges of cities have complicated their management. In other words, the increasing of expansion, and complexity of problems in cities as well as becoming aware of the incompetent conventional system and top down decisions-making have led to a trend toward systems, in which all of decisions are made through cooperation between urban beneficiaries. Due to the many changes in cities, management was not feasible in the traditional way and insisting on continuing the process of traditional management did not cover the interests of all stakeholders and not creating spatial justice. Therefore, todays a procedure which is considered to be the most effective, the least expensive and the most constant is "Good Urban Governance". It can be defined as a procedure of managing municipal activities with cooperation and engagement of three sectors; public, private and civilized society in order to create a sound city with high level of living capabilities and constant development. A prominent feature of democratic governments is good governance which cannot be realized without democracy. Good governance results in a growing trust between citizens and governments, and ultimately public satisfaction. Among the new components that have influenced or changed the structure of today's cities, is the development of information and communication technologies, which is discussed with different titles such as electronic cities, digital cities and virtual cities. Now, a new concept that has been proposed in recent years with the focus on the use of information and communication technology for the quality development of urban life and its sustainability is the theory of creating smart cities. Therefore, moving towards creating smart cities is inevitable and necessary. What plays a constructive role in the development of infrastructure and the creation of such a city is good urban governance. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting urban good governance in the creation of smart cities.
The present inquiry is a descriptive-analytical study with an applied purpose. The data and information of this research were collected in two ways, library and survey, that in the survey method, the questionnaire tool was used that validity and reliability were confirmed by experts in this field. Collected information were classified and analyzed using SPSS software and using t-test, decision models such as VIKOR. Therefore, according to the purpose of examining the feasibility of indicators of good urban governance in urban areas of Tehran and the relationship between good urban governance indicators and intelligence, the indicators of good urban governance have been studied and evaluated by the residents of the 2nd and 10th districts of Tehran and smartening by the experts and officials of Tehran Municipality. The statistical Society of this research is the residents of District 2 (as a privileged area) and District 10 (as a less privileged area) in Tehran that by Using Cochran's sampling, the sample size of 384 (262 people from District 2 and 122 people from District 10) was calculated. In addition, using the snowball sampling to investigate the relationship between the indicators of smart city and good urban governance, 60 (40 officials and 20 experts), officials and experts have been selected.
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that in region 10 of Tehran, good urban governance indexes are not in desirable condition. The average desirability of good urban governance indicators in district 10 of Tehran is less than average, therefore, this region has an unfavorable and unfavorable situation of governance. The results of the analysis of the VIKOR model for ranking the regions showed that region 2 is in a better position compared to region 10. Therefore, region 10 (as a less privileged region) should be the first priority to improve the conditions for the implementation of good urban governance. According to the results, the average of all indicators in region two (except the lawfulness index) is higher than the theoretical average (number 3), so that this region has the highest value in the equity index (with an average of 3.48). Regarding region ten, it should be noted that only in the transparency index, they received a higher average than the theoretical average, and these averages were general and were obtained without taking into account the weight of the index. Since these indicators are not of equal importance, it is necessary to determine the importance or relative weight of each of them for a more accurate evaluation. In the present study, hierarchical analysis (AHP) has been used to determine the weight of the indicators. The weight obtained from the indices showed that the response index (with an index weight of 0.182) and the transparency index (with an index weight of 0.177) have the highest weight, respectively.
During the last several decades, various approaches have been proposed in the field of urban management that good urban governance is one of the most prominent of them. Now, this model is the best way out of the impasse of poverty and underdevelopment of cities. However, urban management in developing countries, including Iran, faces major constraints and challenges. On the one hand, these restrictions are associated with the growth of urban population and the rise of urbanization, and on the other hand, it faces the traditional structure of local institutions that are still not prepared for structural change. Considering the increasing amount of complexity of urban management problems in Iran, is increasing day by day, the application of the principles of good urban governance is an undeniable necessity. Despite the extensive political, economic, social and technological changes in the country and, consequently, increasing the level of public awareness and knowledge, a new concept in recent years with the focus on the use of information and communication technology for the quality development of urban life and its sustainability Is the theory of creating smart cities. But it should be noted that the necessary precondition for creating an intelligent society is a change in the body of urban management, in other words, moving towards good urban governance. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the indicators of good urban governance and the relationship between intelligence and indicators of good urban governance in the city of Tehran. For this purpose, two districts 2 and 10 of Tehran were selected. The findings showed that Region 2 is in a better position and Region 10 (as a less privileged region) is the first priority to improve the conditions for good urban governance.