بررسی روند شکل گیری هویت ملی در ایران، از منظر قلمروخواهی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیارجغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

نظام‌های سیاسی در پی قلمروخواهی ملت‌ها شکل می‌گیرد. قلمروخواهی، فرایندی است که توامان به تقسیم و ترکیب فضا منتهی می‌شود؛ به‌گونه‌ای که هم می‌تواند به تاسیس یک نظام سیاسی منتهی شود و هم یک نظام سیاسی موجود را چندپاره کند.. در این میان، هویت ملی به عنوان یک نیروی آیکونوگرافیک، رابطه‌ای دو سویه با قلمروخواهی دارد و در یک تعامل پایدار، بر قلمروخواهی تاثیر می‌گذراد و متقابلاً از آن تاثیر می‌پذیرد. با توجه به اهمیت هویت ملی در ایجاد و بقاء کشورها، پژوهش حاضر رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی و استنباطی و بر پایه استدلال و بررسی اسنادی، کوشیده است تا نقش هویت ملی در شکل‌گیری قلمرو سیاسی در ایران را تبیین کند. یافته‌ها نشان داد که شکل‌گیری هویت ملی در ایران بیش از آنکه روندی مصنوعی، دستوری و از بالا باشد، به سبب تاریخ طولانی، پیوسته و دارای نقش فضایی مشخص، روندی طبیعی بوده است. برای شکل گیری این خودآگاهی در ذهن مردم ایران، مولفه‌های فضایی در مسیر تاریخ شکل گرفته‌اند. بر این اساس قلمروخواهی در ایران به شکل‌گیری ملتی در کالبد فضایی مشخصی منتج شده که با گذشت قرن‌ها توانسته است تا ملت، کشور و علت وجودی خود را حفظ کند. به نظر می‌رسد مردمی که در جغرافیایی ایران زندگی می‌کردند و می‌کنند نسبت به هویت ملی خود آگاه بودند و این هویت ملی با جغرافیای کشور چفت شده و قلمرو سیاسی کشور را شکل داده است. بر این اساس، به‌نظر می‌رسد هویت ملی در ایران هویتی جغرافیایی بوده و مؤلفه‌های هویت ملی، مانند قوم، فرهنگ، مذهب، زبان و ... بر بستر آن، عینیت یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the process of formation of national identity in Iran, from the perspective of territorialism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Tabatabai 1
  • Bahador Zarei 2
  • Hasan Kamran Dastjerdi 3
  • Abbas Ahmadi 4
1 PhD student in Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Iran is a historical land with many border tides that was located on the Iranian plateau and its peripheral areas and now has political sovereignty over parts of the Iranian plateau. It cannot be said correctly that Iran is an Eastern or Western country, and perhaps the application of the word "middle" to these regions stems from this point. civilization is formed on the basis of geographical environment In this geographical space, the nation and national identity have been formed.
 
Methodology
the present study is one of the basic researches and in terms of purpose, it is descriptive-analytical and supervises the analysis of the problem. In this research, analysis has been presented using historical data. The type of analysis used in this study is a historical analysis in which the roots of the formation of the political system in Iran in comparison with other countries, especially Europe, have been studied and explained. In terms of resources used, in the present study, documentary and library resources have been used and the method of data collection in this research is library. This research is explained in the form of an article.
 
Results and Discussion
Over time, many connections are formed between people who live in a geographical area, which gives them a special political view of being a nation. The domination of man in the place continues to the last borders of a country and is as old as human history Real boundaries represent the ultimate advancement of political, cultural, and social concepts, and any kind of demarcation outside of historical custom will lead to the division of these concepts. In Iran, the country's borders have been established throughout a very long and continuous history, and any tide of these borders has met with the reaction of at least the Iranian elite. This patriotic approach, which was formed in the minds of people like Ferdowsi and Yaqub Laith Saffari, became a form of archaism, rationalism or idealism in the contemporary centuries. It is necessary to mention that in different historical periods, especially in the first centuries of Islam, in fact, everyone in Iran knew where Iran was, and even when Iran was part of the Islamic Caliphate, the people knew such a town and village. Who are Iranians or belong to another country. In the land of Iraq, this division can be seen in different areas. In Madain, for example, an Arab group lived alongside an Iranian group, and this amalgamation led to the defeat of the Levant against Iraq, and the formation of the Abbasid Caliphate from a combination of Iranian and Arab civilizations. This mix has existed in many parts of the world throughout history and has led to many wars and conflicts. A phase of war and violence will begin if territorialism transcends the borders defined by the nation. However, national identity is formed in a geographical context and in an ideal state, this geographical context corresponds to the borders of the country. With the exception of small island states such as Malta, it is very rare for the borders of a country and the geography that national identity has been occupied in a historic effort to coincide.
The national identity of individuals in its historical course leads to political self-awareness and the desire to form a specific land. The political system is formed following the territorial aspirations of the masses of people who, in the course of their evolution, form a state and become a nation. Territorialism in the sense is a constructive phenomenon that leads to the formation of civilization. Ancient civilizations were formed following the expansion of territory, and the political systems created following this territorialization created the first political concepts. Political Concepts and the Crisis of Legitimacy of Governments, which are part of their political structure, have led to complex, more efficient political systems in which the role of the people has become more prominent. With the entanglement of the concept of state and nation, national identity took on a political flavor. However, throughout history, territorialism has always been associated with destruction, violence, and war, and wherever a nation has risen up for spatial growth and development, it has ended up with attacks without strong philosophical support and relying on superficial concepts. The outside world is under attack.
Conclusion
The nation-state has been wonderfully established in Iran during its heyday. Unlike the disappearance of ancient civilizations such as Greece and Rome in Europe, Iranian civilization and Iranian identity have not been disconnected and have always been current. Another point is the clinging of Iranian identity and geography of Iran, and unlike some civilizations such as Indian and Roman civilization in the great migration from Rome to Byzantium, has always been felt within its borders, albeit restless. An interesting feature of Iranshahri civilization is the lack of a specific center in its vast geography. Iranshahri civilization has been fluid in the geography of Iran for centuries and its geographical centers have been constantly shifted. Unlike Athens, Rome, Paris and London, which have long represented their countries, no city has played such a role even in the first years of the formation of the political system in Iran. The Achaemenid Empire also benefited from several centers. In contrast, the formation of the political system and the creation of the nation-state in Europe has always been an artificial phenomenon that is by no means tied to its geographical space and is more satisfied with ethnicity and language. European nation-building has often been violent and bloody, leading to endless conflicts. Extremist regionalism has risen up against EU regionalism and challenged the values ​​of the Union.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • political system
  • territorialism
  • Nation
  • country
  • National identity
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