عنوان مقاله [English]
Rural settlements as spatial-spatial systems, like all systems under the influence of internal forces and current trends in their environment and external forces and trends in various ways are subject to constant dynamics and change and in a dynamic interaction of different forces affecting color and Are formed. One of the factors influencing the physical-spatial developments of rural settlements that in recent years, these areas have faced a complex spatial crisis is the physical phenomenon of "sprawl" that over time by swallowing rural lands, agricultural and garden uses to It transforms residential, commercial and service and, ultimately, leads to the integration and unification of villages to meet the rapid growth of population and meet high demand, reflecting the flow of influence - the impact of internal factors (natural forces - ecological and social - Economic) and external forces (political-administrative decisions and civil actions), each of which in the context of time and dynamic interaction, somehow cause physical-spatial changes and vulnerability of rural areas.
The present study is a descriptive-analytical research in terms of purpose, method and description of the current situation and conditions, and data collection has been done using documentary and library methods and survey data. The statistical population of this study includes all rural settlements in Chamestan section of Noor city located in three villages (Natel Rustaq, Mianroud and Lavij) with 87 villages that are naturally located in mountainous, foothill and plain sections. The selection of rural settlements from all three villages is based on their natural characteristics, population and distance from the city. In order to determine the sample size, an average of 20% of the villages from each village was considered and based on the proportional allocation, out of 87 villages, 17 villages were selected. Then, using Morgan and Krejcie table, according to the population and number of households in each village, 250 heads of households were selected as a sample and questionnaires were distributed among them using a simple random sampling method. Local managers (councils and village heads) were also questioned due to their responsibility to monitor and control land use change in rural areas in full. Data collection in this study wasobservational and questionnaire and information analysis was performed both qualitatively and quantities.
Results and discussion
Factors affecting the formation of sprawl in rural lands of Chamestan region can be divided into two categories: internal factors (environmental or natural-ecological, economic, social and physical factors) and external factors (political and legal factors). According to the research findings, it was found that the pattern of sprawl and land use change in rural settlements of Chamestan region has been affected more than anything by its environmental-ecological factors; The existence of three plains, foothills and mountains and the existence of different slopes from north to south of the region, indicates the existence of diverse topography of the region, which has caused all areas in different heights and slopes of the region, the phenomenon of sprawl and change Experience land use. On the other hand, the economic problems of the people such as low income and decrease in income of rural households from the agricultural sector, rising prices and stock exchanges after land use change, low prices of agricultural products, low productivity of capital in the agricultural sector and land returns in the sector Agriculture and service and housing activities and changes in household income along with higher prices of agricultural inputs, import of similar products at lower prices, higher profitability in service and industrial activities, high production costs, high risk and risk in agricultural activities, hard work Agriculture has joined hands to make the phenomenon of sprawl and land use change occur widely and with much higher speed and intensity in the agricultural and garden lands of the studied rural areas, especially in the Chamestan plain area. In this regard, population growth and migration along with the spontaneous expansion of second-home tourism, lower social status of agriculture compared to activities related to services(tourism), changing the lifestyle of villagers from simplicity to luxury, the existence of smallholder farming and plots Land fragmentation has been a social factor in the formation of the creep phenomenon. The expansion of communication routes, transportation networks and easy access, has played an important role in creating spatial and functional connections between settlements in the region and in fact by providing the possibility Infrastructure and superstructure services in rural areas have caused spatial changes and sprawl in the region. Weak government support policies for agriculture and farmers were recognized as one of the most important and effective external factors in the formation of sprawl in the rural areas under study. Approval and implementation of the rural master plan, weakness of institutions and executive bodies in the implementation of land use protection laws, weakness in control and supervision. Construction and issuance of licenses by the responsible organizations, the law of successive division of land between children due to inheritance law, the lack of a system of registration of documents and property and the predominance of the charter system of real estate, the process of sprawl formation and increase in construction And has accelerated gardens in the areal.
In general, in order to explain the causes and factors of sprawl formation in rural areas of Chamestan, the effectiveness of each factor alone in this process will be a one-dimensional, simplistic and reductionist analysis and a systemic, co-synergistic and synergistic view.To all the internal and external factors governing rural settlements, it is inevitable. And studies showed that rural sprawl in rural settlements of Chamestan is not sustainable for development, so that the path and goal of development has been reduced from a comprehensive development process to economic growth.