عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent decades, excessive concentration in metropolitan areas and the polarization of industry and employment in cities and the abandonment of the surrounding area have led to land grabbing and uneven development of land use change, functional and structural changes in developing societies, including Iran. This spatial inequality has disrupted sustainable development in villages as well as cities, especially in urban peripheral environments.
In this research, the functional relations of Zanjan city with the surrounding villages, which are under the direct influence of the city, have been considered. These villages have undergone fundamental changes in recent decades, and even their function and structure have changed completely. Considering these developments and their differences in special cases of suburban settlements in Zanjan, the integration of the spatial system of the city and its surroundings has been done based on the theoretical approach; Therefore, the research questions are as follows: What are the explanatory drivers of urban economy in Zanjan according to its current situation? Secondly, which factors related to the economic drivers of Zanjan have the greatest impact on the quality of life of peripheral villages?
The present study is descriptive-analytical in terms of method and applied in terms of purpose. To collect the analytical data in a combined way, the survey and Delphi methods were used. In this regard, first, a conceptual indicator explaining the urban economic drivers was collected in a systematic study and review of resources, and then, the data analysis stage was carried out using a survey method as a questionnaire from the opinions of 50 related experts. Final concepts were analyzed using exploratory research tools, heuristic and confirmatory factor analysis models and regression analysis of path analysis, amount and manner of impact of economic components of Zanjan on the livelihood of peripheral villages in the form of structural equation modeling software (smart pls). To assess the validity of the questionnaires, several professors and experts in the field of urban planning and urban planning confirmed it. The reliability level of the research questionnaire was 0.81 using Cronbach's alpha method, which indicates a high coefficient of confidence.
Results and discussion
Spatial imbalance is evident in the urban system of Zanjan province and despite 21 urban points in this province, urban growth and expansion is more specific to the four main cities of Zanjan, Qeydar, Khorramdareh and Abhar. Over time, despite the decline of the first city in Zanjan province, the urban system tends to balance. Despite the increase in the number of small cities to reduce the imbalance in the urban system of the province, we witness a long distance between these cities and the first city; Other effective factors in exacerbating this inequality and imbalance can be the geographical factor, the way of budget allocation in the cities of the province, inadequate distribution of population and concentration of facilities and infrastructure in Zanjan and its undisputed role in the urban system of the province and the insignificant role of cities.
The research findings show that most of the villagers are completely dependent on the city in terms of services, since cities are places where information is spread around. Based on field studies and distribution of questionnaires, sales of agricultural and horticultural products to the city scored the highest score among marketing and sales indicators and the amount of food supplies purchased from the city per month with a load of 0.73. Many experts and specialists in the agricultural sector believe that marketing is one of the necessities of the rural production system and agriculture, the importance of which is very evident in the process of rural production. The importance of this issue is such that, marketing is a more important category than production and marketing is mentioned as the invisible hand of production in developed countries and even in developing countries. This amount is above average, so the villages are completely dependent on the city of Zanjan for marketing and selling their products. Villagers come to this city to sell their products. Of course, proximity and short distance are also more reasons and causes numerous traffic and visits of the villagers. Then there is the index of purchasing food items from the city per month. The flow of urban investment in the economic activities of the villages, the flow of communication to purchase and supply of necessities with the values of 2.227 and 2.045 have the lowest amount. Also, all independent variables could have a significant effect on the dependent variable. Therefore, the findings show that the economic drivers of Zanjan have had a great impact on the quality of life in peripheral villages.