عنوان مقاله [English]
The first generation of land banks emerged in the last quarter of the twentieth century as local government institutions in St. Louis, Cleveland, Louisville, and Atlanta. Their main task is to provide land for the coordinated development of the city and to provide it with suitable conditions for the implementation of urban development programs. The establishment of a land bank will also ensure that government and public organizations have access to the land market to provide public services in cities. In general, land banks do not intend to replace the functioning of private markets, but to help in cases where market conditions are poor. Therefore, the adoption of effective strategies to increase land supply and stabilize its relatively balanced price at the city level is emphasized by urban planners and economic development theorists. This study seeks to evaluate the policy of creating a land bank through qualitative content analysis to identify its goals, advantages, weaknesses and problems and finally a suitable model for establishing a favorable system in relation to the land bank. Therefore, this study seeks to answer three questions:
1- What is the purpose of establishing a land bank in Iran?
2- What are the weaknesses and problems of Zamin Bank?
3- What should be the optimal model of land bank policy?
In this research, which is developmental-applied in terms of purpose and qualitative in terms of method, content analysis method has been used. By referring to the articles, researches, research projects and writings that have been done in the field of land bank and related materials, a statistical community of 28 articles and reports and documents in the field of land and housing bank policy is included. The objectives of the land bank policy, the weaknesses and challenges facing it and the appropriate model of this policy have been extracted from them. The titles and specifications of each of the documents and articles used are given in Table (1). Content analysis method can be used to examine the obvious content of messages in a text. In this method, explicit content and messages are described systematically and quantitatively. Therefore, this method can be considered as a method of converting qualitative data into quantitative data. Content analysis is a convenient way to answer questions about the content of a message.
Results and Discussion
The research findings showed that in relation to the policy objectives of the land bank, 16 initial codes were extracted and then each of these codes in 6 concepts called land database, preventing the dominance of real estate capitalism over activity Supporting vulnerable and low-income groups, Increasing land efficiency and desirability, Institutional capacity building and Land monitoring and control were classified into two main categories including management. Land integration and creating distributive justice in society were separated. In connection with the weaknesses and problems of the land bank policy, 27 initial codes were extracted and then each of these codes in 5 concepts entitled “Improper implementation of cadastre in the country, Defective administrative cycle, Legal factors, “Factors Financial and cultural and social factors were categorized. Finally, a main category entitled Weaknesses and problems of land bank implementation was raised and in connection with the desired model, 17 initial codes were extracted and then each of these codes in 8 concepts entitled Using the successful experiences of other countries In the field of land bank policy, Proper implementation of cadastre in the country, Revenue sources and financing, Development of an integrated and coherent vision in the field of land and housing and Development of operational strategies for land management to move towards balance And distributive justice were categorized, and finally a favorable and efficient model was presented in relation to the policy of the land bank.
Land banks are government entities that acquire and collect vacant, tax-free and unused property for short-term or long-term strategic development purposes. These banks offer creative and flexible solutions for using unproductive or undesirable properties. Research shows that land banking can achieve optimal allocation of land resources and boost the process of intensive construction, which is widely considered to be a key part of the core concept of sustainable urban development. Doing this kind of research on land bank investment and key metrics can be a valuable step in increasing your chances of investment success. Different types of information are used in the decision-making process for land bank development projects, which can ultimately help produce the most accurate decision. This necessity is clearly seen in the cities of our country. Today, many cultural and physical economic anomalies are observed in our cities, such as the entry of demand for mere capital in land transactions (land trading), the prevailing idea of trading and land grabbing, increasing the cost of municipal services, lack of economic justification for investing in production, gradual inflation in the economy Urban, the existence of dilapidated inner-city areas and suburbs and informal settlements, the creation of heterogeneous urban textures, etc. are all problems that indicate the lack of proper policy in the land sector.