1 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The political function of the various units within the country depends on the type of government and political system in the country. Most researchers merely describe the functional and structural features of space policy management and explain how countries are divided and ignore the impact of different factors on the way political management of space has been. Governments have to reorganize their territory politically in order to govern and govern their territory. Also, the level of power and authority of the regions within the countries depends on the type of political system governing the countries. The context and framework of the administrative organizational structure of a country is determined by the political management of space. If the system of political management of space is hierarchically high, the organizational structure will also tend to be high. The high structure, in addition to slowing down the information process, has led to the expansion of bureaucracy due to the need for facilities, resources and manpower, and the complication of bureaucracy, waste of resources and high costs. Marxism has been chosen as a discourse centered on justice, and Castro-era Cuba has been chosen for analysis as a country influenced by this discourse. In Cuba after the 1959 revolution against the dictator Batista, the centralist structure that prevailed during his time continued in a different way. Cuban society before the revolution was different from the civilized societies of the time, the fundamental distinction between the deprived and the affluent, the rulers and farmers and citizens of Havana with other peoples, had created a rift that could make Cubans two separate nations. A select group of prominent government officials, army officers, and landowners ruled the community, and the rest of the people lived in deplorable living, health, and educational conditions.This study is about the political management of space in Cuba after the 1959 revolution.
The nature of exploratory research is descriptive-analytic and uses library resources, and the method is also influenced by the provocative methods; discourse is, according to a dominant definition, intellectual and practical logic ruling over a specific time and place, the ideology of a state Can be considered a hegemonic discourse. Using the method of Laclau and Mouffe discourse analysis to analyze phenomena, events and socio-political issues requires accurate knowledge of the concepts used by the two, as long as the researcher has not learned these concepts properly, their application and formulation in various subjects. It is difficult and impossible, the most important concepts and terms of Lacla and Mouffe that are often used in this research are such as articulation, domain of discourse, obstruction, chain of equivalence and so on
Results and discussion
The ideology of government in Cuba has had a special impact on its political management. The characteristics of Cuba in the form of the analysis of the discourses of Lacla and Mouffe, describe and then influence the dominant discourse on Cuba in its political management after the 1959 revolution. After the revolution, ideology of Marxism paid attention to the necessity of paying attention to all aspects of the Cuban nation, and it became apparent on all issues of this country. At periods in the life of Cuba's socialist system over the past 60 years, this discourse has had its weaknesses. Not all Cubans agreed with the new regime, and the US-backed opposition created problems for a goal-oriented and egalitarian justice discourse. The popular discourse in post-revolutionary Cuba was easily introduced to the traditional society of the country. People had not forgotten the bitter experience of the Spanish, American and colonial period of Batista and his allies, the new discourse gained credibility with them. The type of government in Cuba is centralist and simple, and the main powers and institutions of government are all concentrated in Havana. All states are under the control of the central government and are subordinate to the government in important decisions and have no special autonomy. This centralism is also one of the policies of the Cuban revolutionary discourse. Autonomy has been widely condemned for economic sabotage and interaction with the United States since the beginning of the revolution, and states are unlikely to become autonomous for many years to come. The states have full authority over local affairs, and all elements of local government are elected by the local people, but the policy of most local policies is also determined by the Communist Party offices there, although this has changed since the constitutional amendment.
From the research results, it appears that Cuban political management of space is centered on the separation of powers and recognizes the constitution of civil and religious freedoms. The blockade of the Cuban revolutionary discourse after the collapse of the Soviet Union led to a revision of the constitution, which has guaranteed the revision and revision of the entrenchment of Cuban revolutionary discourse