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2 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرری، ایران.
3 دانشیار گروه راهبردی، دانشگاه علوم انتظامی امین، تهران، ایران.
4 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Despite the special importance of the metropolis of Tehran as the capital of the country, inappropriate management and governance practices in this metropolis has always been criticized by researchers. Despite the evolution of the management and planning systems of the world's metropolitan areas, even in developing countries; In the absence of a participatory democratic system based on powerful governance, the metropolis of Tehran that is overwhelmed by multiple activists and actors, has become a strategic, large and populated city with intertwined and disruptive barriers such as unplanned creep of activities and constructions, destruction and threatening of natural resources and the environment in the metropolitan area and its suburb, which has a growing trend. Bases on these mentioned issues, the aim of this study is answering these questions that what is the status of desirable urban governance indicators in Tehran from the residents and experts’ perspectives? Which of the following components has the greatest impact on the optimal urban governance of the study area?
The purpose of the present research is practical and its method is descriptive-analytical. Data and information of the study collected using the library and field methods. The first statistical population of the study consists of citizens living in Tehran and experts and specialists. According to the last census conducted in 2016, the statistical population of Tehran citizens is equal to 8,679,936 people. The size of statistical sample of citizens estimated to be 384 people and for specialists estimated to be 60 people, using Cochran's formula. In this study, both descriptive analysis and inferential analysis methods were used for Statistical analysis and SPSS software was used to analyze the data.
Discussions and findings
The findings of this study showed that all the average values obtained for all components of urban governances were less than the theoretical average of 3. Among the components, the component of responsibility with an average of 2.71 had lowest average and the consensus component with an average of 2.76 had the highest average. The obtained average of general variable of urban governance was equal to 2.754. This average is less than the theoretical average of the research (number 3) and the difference between them is negative 0.246. The obtained level of significance was less than 0.05, so difference is significant at the 95% confidence level. The total average value of urban governance indicators, from the experts' point of view is equal to 2.23 and from the people's point of view is equal to 2.22, and the calculated significance level is equal to 0.974, so there is no significant difference between the perspective of these two groups.
Based on other findings of this study, among the components of urban governance, the participation component with a path coefficient of 0.263 has the greatest impact on the implementation of urban governance and is first component of the ranking. The components of efficiency and effectiveness, the governance of rule and accountability with a path coefficient of 0.182, 0.175 and 0.172, respectively, are the second to fourth components of the ranking, and responsiveness with a path coefficient of 0.084 has the lowest level in the ranking list (eighth).
The findings of the study showed that the status of urban governance in the metropolis of Tehran is undesirable. The average value obtained was equal to 2.754, which is less than the average limit and indicates the undesirable urban governance in Tehran. According to the views of the two groups of urban management, the results show that the implementation of urban governance is facing serious challenges. Other results of this study show the views of citizens and experts on the status of urban governance and indicate that there is no significant difference between the views of experts and the people. Awareness of the importance of participation, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness, Law-abiding, transparency of information, justice, rule of law and central consensus indicators and consensus on this can be a turning point to start moving towards the implementation of urban governance. Achieving low scores for these indicators from the perspective of two statistical groups indicates the existence of serious weaknesses in these components of urban management of Tehran metropolis. The summary of the final results of this research is that the desirable urban governance implementation in Tehran and other cities of Iran requires a serious political determination and strong will at the highest levels of government and belief in such a management model. Unless this necessity and concern becomes an internal issue for all political and executive officials, the implementation of the model of urban governance is far from Realization.