1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه گلستان، گرگان، ایران.
2 دکترای جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The extraction of minerals presents both opportunities and challenges for human well-being and social life. Research has extensively explored the challenges faced by communities trying to maintain a healthy and prosperous social life around a mine. Creating the infrastructure to properly direct capital and resources to generate wealth and added value is one of the major responsibilities of policymakers in any country, including Iran, which is impossible without a thorough analysis of the potential of the various regions. Studying the role of industries (mining) in improving the livelihoods of rural households in Azadshahr County is the focus of this study.
It is descriptive-analytical in nature and applied in its goals. Information was collected by two methods: library and field (researcher-made questionnaire). Azadshahr mine employees in Golestan province with 400 heads of households are included in the statistical population. 196 people were selected according to Cochran's formula as the greater caution sample size of 200 people. The questionnaire was filled out using a 5-point Likert scale (very low, low, medium, high, very high) in human, social, physical, natural and financial dimensions. Based on the approval of experts and professors in the field of rural geography, the content validity of the questionnaires was verified. Based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient, reliability was calculated for human capital 0/894, financial capital 0/813, natural capital 0/813, social capital 0/868, and physical capital 0/856. The collected data was analyzed with Friedman, Chi-square, Phi Cramer, and Spearman correlation coefficients within the SPSS software environment. The map was created with ArcGIS software.
Results and Discussion
At 99% confidence level, there is a link between industrial (mining) businesses and increasing the sustainable livelihood capital of rural households, and employment in this type of business has greater effects on economic, social, physical and human capital, but their effects on natural capital are much weaker. In human capital, the variable characterized by the highest average rank was the presence of skilled and semi-skilled manpower, while the variable characterized by the lowest average rank was the inventive and creative class. This type of business was rated highest for its effectiveness in reducing unemployment among villagers. The lowest score was given for its opportunities to engage women. The highest average rating was given to reducing conflicts between residents, while the lowest average rating was given to access to information and communication technology. Based on the average rating, physical capital was rated highest for its contribution to improving housing conditions of villagers and lowest for its contributions to building religious structures. Land deformation received the highest average rating in natural capital, while the impact of this activity on environmental protection received the lowest. A Spearman correlation coefficient was used to demonstrate the relationship between mine income and subsistence capital. The coefficient has a significant relationship according to the level of significance. It is true that there is a significant relationship between employment in the mine and earning income, but this relationship is moderate. The chi-square values for subsistence capital show a significant difference between the observed frequencies and the expected frequencies when the significance level is lower than 0.01, meaning that the difference between these two ratios is statistically significant. The phi Cramer test indicates a relationship between monthly income and economic capital variables. Considering that the correlation between monthly income and variables is high for most variables and is significant at a level lower than 0.01, it is possible to conclude that there is a strong relationship between the two.
Iran's mining and mineral industries are considered to be its most important economic sectors. As a result, the growth and development of this sector has been able to promote and improve the sustainable livelihood of rural households by increasing economic activity, employment, and income. It is perhaps the most serious impact of coal mining on the environment that there are environmental changes, land erosion, vegetation changes, soil degradation, and land deformation. It is often overlooked how mining affects the quality of life of local communities, as most of the benefits go to the mining industry and its workforce, thereby excluding the rest of the population. Additionally, the villages have been able to benefit from the mines through the employment of workers. It is expected that developing the skills of local uneducated communities will increase livelihood opportunities, especially for residents of rural mining areas. The development and expansion of mining activities will reduce transportation costs and, when combined with the development of conversion-related and complementary industries near the mines, will create jobs and attract rural labor, as well as increase the sustainability of rural livelihoods and population retention in rural areas.