نوع مقاله : مقاله مستخرج از پایان نامه
1 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.
2 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The geopolitical environment can be considered as a network within which there are different actors and actors. In this network, each of the actors has a different role, weight, importance, communication, and ability to influence and act. In such a way I can see a hierarchy of power, influence and influence in it. The geopolitical position of countries plays an important role in generating their power. Iran because of its ancient civilization. Having extensive natural resources; The population has a significant geopolitical centrality. Iran is a country whose power is greatly influenced by its geopolitical position. This study intends to make a comparative study of Iran's geopolitical centrality in the Pahlavi and Islamic Republic governments. The Middle East region, as a geopolitical network, has several sub-networks, and in total, we can name 11 geopolitical sub-networks, the most important of which are the sub-network of Islam, energy, democracy, and the sub-network of resistance.
The research method in this article is analytical-descriptive. The data and information in this article have been done using the library method and by studying articles, books and documents.
Results and discussion
The Middle East is a geopolitical network in which different actors compete for control and influence, and this competition takes place in several subnets. The Middle East Geopolitical Network has eleven geopolitical sub-networks Which include: Resources, Economy and Energy, Shiism, Islam, Sunni, Arabs, Security, West, Resistance, Terrorism, Democracy, Gulf Cooperation Council Iran, as one of the countries in the Middle East region, has had a different position in these sub-networks in different periods. In the Pahlavi era, the centrality of Iran was mostly related to the security, western and economic sub-networks but in the period of the Islamic Republic, they changed their nature and took on more ideological aspects. Before the 1979 revolution, Iran was more concentrated on the three networks of the West, security, and the economy. Under the Western network, which existed against the communist regime, and all the countries of the Middle East except Syria, South Yemen, and Iraq were present in this sub-network. Iran was highly centralized due to more advanced modernism than other countries
The security network included Iran and several other countries, including Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey in order to counter the influence of communism and to defend the West, they realize that Iran is being considered by the Western powers and is centrally managing this network. The economic sub-network includes the oil countries of the region, in which Iran is the center of energy flow in the Middle East. The occurrence of the Islamic Revolution in February 1978 is the beginning of a new chapter in the contemporary history of Iran and established a republic based on Shiite Islam under the name of the Islamic Republic. This revolution caused many changes in Iran and the region Iran subnets in this period include Shiite subnets, democracy, and resistance. The Shiite sub-network includes Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Lebanon, with Iran as a key player, as opposed to the Saudi-led Sunni network. The geopolitical subnet of democracy also includes countries with democratic governments, including the United States and the West, Turkey, Iran, Lebanon, Iraq, and Israel. There is a fundamental contradiction in this subnet, and that is the presence of the West and Iran together. Iran is not very central in this sub-network. Iran argues for religious democracy in the face of the Western model of democracy. Religious democracy is influenced by the form of government of the Islamic Republic and is based on the two foundations of republic and Islam. Resistance-based subnets include Iraq, Syria, Hezbollah, Lebanon, Ansar al-Yamin, Hamas . These sub-networks have been formed in opposition to the West and seek to confront the West and allied countries with the West, especially Israel.
The Middle East is one of the most challenging regions in the world today due to its strategic location and the abundance of vital resources and the intervention of great powers. As a result, most countries and their governments are in crisis or are looking for weapons and ammunition for fear of war. Iran, as one of the most important countries in the Middle East, is no exception to this rule. This article comparatively examines the geopolitical centrality of Iran in the two Pahlavi and Islamic Republic periods. Based on the findings of this study, the influential factor in Iran's geopolitical subnets in the Pahlavi period (West, security and economy) has been the West. In 1978, the Islamic Revolution of Iran led by Imam Khomeini won and the Islamic Republic of Iran became a country that did not belong to any of the ideologies of communism and capitalism and established its government based on the religion of Islam. The victory of the Islamic Revolution causes a change in the geopolitical sub-networks of Iran in comparison with the Pahlavi era and new sub-networks with an ideological nature are formed (democracy, Shiite, resistance).