عنوان مقاله [English]
The first step in explaining the course of thought in any scientific field is to inquire about the roots of that science, the name of the person who used the term of that science for the first time, or the person who published a lasting work about it for the first time. Most of the texts of political geography in Iran and the world, German geographer Friedrich Ratzel - because of the book he wrote in 1897. Published - as the founder of this science; While the use of the term political geography and its definition was first used by the famous French philosopher, economist and manager "Anne Robert Jacques Turgot" in 1751. done. In a comparative analytical way, this article tries to help solve the mystery of the foundation of this scientific discipline by examining Turgo's thoughts and comparing them with Ratzel's thoughts. The results of the research show that Turgo's humanistic approach to the science of geography and the "theory of the gradual progress of man" presented by him had an important impact on the emergence of modern geography. By using the term "political geography", Turgo tried to show the relationship between geographical realities and political organization. He meant the political organization mainly the government and considered it "the science of producing knowledge for the government". But Ratzel made the axis of political geography to explain the nature of government and under the influence of social Darwinism, racism, imperialism and war, he presented a form of political geography that had a significant impact on the creation of Nazism and its violence in the early 20th century. As a result, during a century and a half that has passed since the life of political geography as an academic discipline, since the 1950s, the opinions of political geographers have mainly been along the lines of Torgost to Ratzel. For this reason, Turgo can be considered the founder of political geography.