عنوان مقاله [English]
Resilience means thinking and creating measures to quickly return to the original state after an incident. A city without resilient infrastructure is highly vulnerable to disasters. With the increasing environmental challenges facing humans in the modern era, this concept has been expanded in various fields of science and redefined by scientists in different disciplines. This approach is seen as a suitable alternative to rigid and engineered approaches. A resilient community is capable of returning relatively quickly to its previous state, while a community with less resilience may take longer to recover or may not be able to recover at all. Iran is among the countries with very high vulnerability to natural disasters due to its geographical and geological conditions. 7.31% of its total area is in areas at risk of natural disasters, and 70% of the country's population reside in areas at risk. Increased resilience and decreased vulnerability among local communities allow for the continuous and sustainable development of residents in the face of natural threats, and subsequent disasters cannot disrupt people's lives. Therefore, explaining the relationship between resilience to threats and reducing their effects, with emphasis on its dimension, is of great importance. Therefore, if the quality of public spaces improves, the voluntary presence of citizens increases, and therefore, the possibility of diverse and higher quality activities is provided. The geographical scope of the research is district 14 of Tehran Municipality, which is one of the densely populated areas of the city and located in the eastern outskirts of Tehran. This area has very suitable welfare facilities and services, and housing costs are very reasonable, so it has a high population density and is known for its small size. This research aims to explain the resilient city based on urban planning with a tactical approach in district 14 of Tehran Municipality.
The present study consists of two theoretical and empirical sections. The theoretical section is based on library studies which focus on collecting and categorizing different theories. In the empirical method, expert opinions were used to identify and rank the influential factors on service innovation, and the information was collected and analyzed. In this research, due to the large number of experts, a sampling method was used and 100 experts were selected. This study is of an applied type in terms of purpose, and of a descriptive-analytical type in terms of method, and the information gathering method is empirical. After extracting the indicators based on expert opinions, the hierarchical analysis process is carried out to analyze them. The method of data analysis in this research is based on the prioritization model of factors affecting urban planning with a tactical approach, and examining the city's resilience using fuzzy Delphi and fuzzy BWM methods. Initially, the indicators are validated or screened by the fuzzy Delphi method, and finally weighted using the fuzzy BWM method.
Results and Discussion
District 14 of the Tehran municipality is one of the areas within the city of Tehran. Located along the course of the Red River, it originates from the eastern heights of Tehran and flows southward. Due to physical, functional, social, economic, and environmental issues, the older parts of the district have unfavorable conditions. However, guidelines for identifying these areas focus on the physical-structural aspects, and 3 criteria of instability, granularity, and penetrability have been used to recognize these districts. Among the sub-criteria for downtime-related issues, the existence of aesthetic elements has obtained the highest rank with a weight of 0.425. The presence of suitable urban furniture has obtained the second rank with a weight of 0.323, and the status of the coverage of alleys and streets has obtained the third rank with a weight of 0.25. The results demonstrate that there are appropriate opportunities for tactical urbanism in the resilient city. Researchers have also studied the measurement of social resilience in urban environments using statistical methods and have provided various frameworks, indicating that there are differences in the components and indices employed at the regional level. Researchers have emphasized topics such as physical and social resilience in historical contexts, the use of resilience indices in metropolitan management, strategic crisis management with an urban resilience approach, and the need for implementing executive programs to improve urban infrastructure resilience and using appropriate indicators and models to measure urban resilience.Regarding resilience and the use of the tactical approach, the average score for tactical urbanism was 35.62, with a minimum score of 18 and a maximum score of 52, while the average score for resilience was 70.79, with a minimum score of 57 and a maximum score of 67. The average score for presence was 10.12, with a minimum score of 4 and a maximum score of 16. The average score for downtime was 16.73, with a minimum score of 7 and a maximum score of 28, and the average score for participation was 10.12, with a minimum score of 0 and a maximum score of 7. The correlation coefficient obtained from the components of tactical urbanism with resilience was significant at 99% confidence, indicating a meaningful relationship between the two at a 0.01 level of significance.
General, tactical urbanism can be defined as a new approach that is based on community participation and the use of short-term, high-impact projects. Tactical urbanism requires taking into account some design principles to create dynamic and vibrant public spaces. Nowadays, much of the literature on urbanism discusses the ideals of tactical urbanism. Harrison notes that the characteristics of this approach include everyday spaces for public activity and the recognition that these features and everyday urban activities constitute a social product. Citizens are practically living in a tactical city every day since they follow a flexible planning in using the environment and demand active participation in shaping the urban space. Citizen participation is the first factor in achieving tactical urbanism in such a way that the neglect and lack of participation of citizens will lead to undesired outcomes. Tactical urbanism is a broad concept used to describe a variety of temporary and low-cost changes made to the built environment. These changes are usually made in cities with the goal of improving the condition of neighborhoods and public places.