1 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران ایران
3 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
4 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
In the structure of the political economy of the world, some countries are developed and some are developing. Some countries are not only not being developed due to geopolitical fragility and threats and internal crises and the external environment, but also on the path to development. Afghanistan is now considered to be one of the world's worst-hit and underdeveloped countries, with no clear prospects for development, nor at the level of the basic development theorem, nor with clear, coherent development strategies, nor with any operational guarantee document. These problems in Afghanistan are rooted in internal and external issues of geography, culture, politics and security. Therefore, planning for the country's territorial development depends on solving these problems. Strategic planning with a framework and political and security considerations can reduce security threats and political challenges and, as a result, territorial development. Therefore, this article attempts to analyze the internal and external factors affecting territorial integration in Afghanistan from a geopolitical point of view. In this regard, there are two questions to be asked: 1) What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and geopolitical threats of Afghanistan in its spatial planinng? 2) How can the landscape of the land in Afghanistan be mapped based on internal and external geopolitical factors? This paper has been written in a descriptive-analytical manner, and the required data is also compiled in a library, documentary and bases and websites.