1 استادیار گروه علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان،تهران، ایران.
2 استادیار گروه علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، کرج، ایران.
3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، مؤسسۀ آموزشی علامه دهخدا، قزوین، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Natural hazards are an issue that most parts of the world deal with in some way. Natural disasters and hazards have always had devastating effects on human settlements and heavy losses on their inhabitants. Despite many scientific advances, humans are still unable to prevent and resist these natural phenomena. Due to being located in the Alborz Mountains, Abyek is vulnerable to natural hazards, including a vulnerable earthquake. Considering the role and function of the city, city economy and also the effect of interaction factors on each other, this study seeks to identify the best places for optimal location of crisis management sites by considering the parameters and effective spatial factors, so that due to the very important role of crisis management support bases in organizing and managing the crisis, the right place for its construction in the city of Abyek, it should be proposed to be considered by the officials in proper urban design and planning.
The present study is practical in terms of purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of data collection method. After identifying the crisis management indicators in Abyek, a questionnaire was designed and after confirming the validity and reliability of the options, it was distributed among the statistical community including officials and urban planners. Then, using the method of hierarchical analysis process and Expert Choice software, the weight of each decision element was determined. After converting the data layers to raster using GIS, finally using the Index overlay method, the layers were combined with each other and the most suitable points were obtained to create crisis support databases.
Results and Discussion
Criteria and sub-criteria were used to locate crisis management support bases, according to the principles and criteria of the Crisis Prevention and Management Organization of Tehran and also the opinion of relevant experts. These criteria and criteria are: population density- Open and green space - fire -hospital-cultural centers- Educational Centers- gyms -Fault-Gas station -Arterial path grade 1& Arterial path grade 2.
Findings of the research in four indicators: prevention, preparedness, disaster relief and response indicated that in the accident prevention index, the results were not satisfactory and show very little dissatisfaction and satisfaction of citizens with crisis prevention measures in Abyek. In the field of crisis preparedness, the results were not satisfactory and show the low satisfaction of citizens with the readiness of the city of Abyek in the face of crisis. The results of the disaster reduction index against the crisis showed very low to moderate citizens' satisfaction with the reduction of the effects of natural disasters in the city of Abyek against the crisis and the results obtained in the crisis response section also show very low to moderate citizens' satisfaction with the reaction of the crisis management headquarters of Abyek city during the crisis. Finally, the final weight of all location elements of the Abyak city crisis management support bases was determined, and the final weight and value of all elements were obtained as follows: Population density, hospital, Fire Stations, first class arterial road, fault, park, second class arterial road, cultural, educational use, gas and gas station, sports use.
Integration of AHP with Geographic Information System
At this stage, all the information layers are restored. Then, according to the type of layer and the criteria related to each layer, the layers were prepared using the distance tool. In the next step, the weight obtained for each criterion in the network analysis process was multiplied by its own spatial layer using the Index Overlay method. Finally, all layers of information were combined and the location map of crisis management support bases in Abyek was obtained. The map below shows the final output of the work. As it can be seen, according to all the steps mentioned, 5 options were identified as optimal for the crisis management support bases of Abyek city.
Due to being located in the Alborz Mountains, Abyek is vulnerable to natural hazards, including a vulnerable earthquake. The relative position of the city along the faults of the region as well as the worn tissues in the Abyek is the first priority of crisis management in this city. Analysis of information obtained from the opinions of city officials indicated that the city of Abyek is in a bad situation in terms of crisis management indicators. Then, multi-criteria decision-making methods and the use of GIS to determine the optimal location for the establishment of multi-purpose crisis management bases in the Abyek city showed that five options as the most desirable locations for support bases there is crisis management in the Abyek city, and among them, the three options that are almost in a better position in terms of indicators such as accessibility are: Northeast of the city, the southern part of the city and the northwestern part of Abyek.