عنوان مقاله [English]
In Iran, the spatial inequality of cities has found a new manifestation, and the city of Ardabil is no exception to this rule. A study of demographic information of Ardabil province shows that in the urban system of this province, the city of Ardabil as the first city dominates the entire urban system. In the 2006 census of the Statistics Center of Iran and the provincial divisions, the city of Ardabil had a population of 418,262 people and in the 2016 census, it had a population of 529,374 people (General Population and Housing Census of the Statistics Center of Iran, 2006-2016). The rapid growth of urban population and the increasing expansion of this city is due to the intense rural-urban and urban-urban migration, which has led to the formation of unbridled and unplanned space, and urban management not only faces problems in providing services, but also In the age of globalization, efficient and effective management has become a passive and appropriate management. The inequality of Ardabil urban areas in having economic indicators and spatial imbalance has caused the city to move away from urban sustainability indicators. These heterogeneous and unequal spaces are not only evident in the whole city but also in the city areas. With an in-depth look at the components of urban sustainability, environmental justice and balanced growth, especially social justice, we can get the essence of it at different levels of global, national, regional and urban areas. According to what has been proposed, the present study has been written with the aim of investigating spatial inequality in the city of Ardabil to identify levels of inequality, to help urban farmers to solve various problems in these unequal areas. In this regard, in the first place, the situation of Ardabil urban blocks in terms of economic indicators using spatial statistics and hot spot analysis has been evaluated, and in the second place, the type of distribution pattern and distribution of spatial inequality using spatial autocorrelation (Moran statistic) becomes specific.
The research method in the present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The information available in the statistical blocks of 2006 and 2016 of Ardabil city was used to collect research data. To show the state of economic inequality, spatial autocorrelation technique is used using Hot Spot Analysis in Arc/GIS software and Moran's I statistic is used to analyze the distribution pattern of this inequality.
Results and discussion
According to the final map, the western and northwestern parts of Ardabil, including Gol Moghan, Molla Yousef, Malabashi, Iranabad, Jane Kennedy, Orujabad, Islamabad, Seyed Abad, Kazem Abad, Mirasharf, Salman Abad and Mehrabad They live economically in poverty. The cause of economic poverty in these areas is the poor condition of the villages annexed to the city, which are now known as urban neighborhoods. The inhabitants of these areas are in an unfavorable economic situation because they are rural migrants. In contrast to these neighborhoods, the conditions of the residents of the southern parts of the city are considered very favorable economically. In this study, the Moran index calculated for 2016 is equal to 0.100517 and for 2006 is equal to 0.127204. This value is less than one and on the other hand the P-value is equal to zero, it can be concluded that the data have spatial self-correlation and because Moran's value is positive, so the spatial pattern of inequality in Ardabil in each The two periods of 1385 and 2016 are clustered.
The study of economic indicators in the blocks of Ardabil shows the unfavorable use of resources and facilities, intra-regional imbalances in the city. So that in the analysis of hot spots on the desired indicators, the southern areas and part of the central areas of Ardabil have a suitable situation in front of these areas, the northern and northern areas The western part of the city was in a very bad situation. Continuation of this situation has also led to gaps and inequality between different areas of Ardabil. This gap and inequality is especially visible, especially between areas with a completely deprived and completely deprived situation. In such a way that these areas have upset the spatial balance and the formation of dual and bipolar spaces in the city of Ardabil and has disrupted the balanced economic growth and development of this city. Also, the studies conducted in order to analyze the spatiality of inequality and the factors affecting its organization in Ardabil city are based on the inefficiency of the management structure and macroeconomic system. They turn. In this regard, the main areas can be the inadequacy of urban management in various areas such as accountability, the failure of the formal land and housing market, the inadequacy of land laws and lack of control over the economic situation and inflation. Also effective processes can be the period of management in Ardabil (all cities of Iran) and the lack of continuity of management positions and reduce their efficiency in promoting poor areas, urban technocracy (non-participation) and the lack of fair distribution of resources, lack of proper implementation of programs Tackling poverty due to various processes in the areas of policy-making, decision-making and implementation (lack of integration), stereotypes during different periods and lack of segregation of interventions in new, old, historical and marginal contexts, not preventing the prominent role of brokers in the field of land and Housing, as well as inappropriate macroeconomic policies that have led to widespread sanctions on Iran over the years and decades and rising inflation, are among the main areas for the spread of spatial inequality in the study area.