عنوان مقاله [English]
Old fabric is a fabric that has developed over a long period and is still surrounded by new-age technology. Although these fabrics had proper functionality in the past, these days they are functionally insufficient and cannot meet the requirements of their residents. Urban regeneration is one of the important policies of governments in dealing with old urban fabrics in developing and developed countries. Since urban regeneration is often implemented through frameworks that sometimes neglect the more vulnerable elements that are considered during the process of development, historically, this method has had destructive effects on the social and ecological well-being of people and the environment. Despite the policy's good intentions to ensure displacement issues, changes in such programs often justify the improvement of old urban fabrics for Economic profit by increasing housing stock or stimulating investment. Most of the displacements of people are due to social injustice and changes in such projects. To create fair spaces, the injustices in such projects must be addressed. Therefore, the current research aims to investigate and identify the effective factors of sustainable urban regeneration emphasizing spatial justice and providing appropriate strategies in this field in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood.
The method of the present research is descriptive-analytic and in terms of purpose, it is placed in the category of applied research. The required data is collected through library studies as well as field studies such as observation, questionnaires, and interviews. The statistical population of the study in this research is the residents of the Nemat-Abad neighborhood located in the 19th district of the Municipality of Tehran. Based on Cochran's formula, the sample size was determined 384 people, and to be sure 400 questionnaires were completed in this field. To identify the effective factors for urban regeneration emphasizing spatial justice in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood, the factor analysis method was employed. Consequently, the SWOT analytical matrix was used to analyze the information and provide strategies to achieve spatial justice in the regeneration of old urban fabrics in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood. At this stage, the statistical population is the officials and the experts of executive bodies related to the issue and academic experts who are familiar enough with the Nemat-Abad neighborhood. Since the number of experts, managers, and specialists in the field of regeneration of old urban fabrics is limited, we tried to prepare a questionnaire for all of them. Therefore, through the purposeful sampling method, 20 people were selected as the sample population.
Results and discussion
The findings of the factor analysis method indicate that the old urban fabric and inefficient fabric in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood have a strong potential for the realization of spatial justice despite all the deficiencies and inadequacies in the current situation. This study revealed that the realization of spatial justice as a local classification has its special requirements, which include improving access to urban services (5.156), increasing biological support (3.802), providing grounds for achieving economic self-sufficiency (3.288), improving the trust and transparency status (3.07), improving the quality of housing (0.966), reinforcing the sense of belonging (1.851). These requirements respectively reduce their contribution to promoting spatial justice in urban regeneration. These six factors justify a total of 70.71% of the variance. Consequently, the results obtained from the SWOT method showed that in the group of strength points, the high active population (0.19 of final weight), and the existence of job facilities (0.18) are the most important strength points, respectively. These cases indicate that the number of economic activists in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood is high, and on the other hand, it indicates the low burden of undertaking in the neighborhood. Among the weak points, the options "Lack of motivation to invest in the fabric due to physical wear and tear" with a score of 0.2 and "Households' placement in low economic deciles" with a score of 0.2 have the highest weight. It can be concluded that in the approach of urban regeneration based on spatial justice in the neighborhood, due to physical wear and uncertainty of return on investment, investors do not have the motivation to invest in this context. On the other hand, households cannot take action to renovate and improve their residential unit because they are in the lower economic deciles. In addition, they will not be able to participate effectively in the regeneration processes from a financial point of view. Among the investigated opportunities, the options "the possibility to solve the lack of urban services and facilities in the fabric in a fair way" and "the determination and law-abiding officials to intervene in the fabric" are placed in the first two positions with a weight of 0.19. These cases indicate that solving the lack of urban services and facilities in a fair manner is a very important factor in achieving spatial justice in the regeneration of the old fabric neighborhood, and also the determination and law-abiding officials are among the most important options in accelerating the process of regenerating the old urban fabric. Among the threat options, "Continuing the process of settling low-income strata with the motivation of obtaining cheap housing" and "Not paying attention to the regeneration of old urban fabric" are ranked first and second with scores of 0.19 and 0.18, respectively. This indicates that most residents of the Nemat-Abad neighborhood are in the lower economic deciles, and also in this neighborhood, the regeneration of old urban fabric has not been paid enough attention.
According to the findings of the research, the provision of suitable and safe housing, the provision of required urban services, and their location and distribution in a fair manner are the most suitable factors for realizing spatial justice in the old urban fabrica in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood. Therefore, the necessity of reviewing the approaches, policies, actions, and operational strategies in the field of old urban fabric, with the approach of stabilizing the urban environment, is quite obvious. Therefore, to determine the best strategy for the realization of spatial justice in the regeneration of old urban fabrics of the Nemat-Abad neighborhood, offensive/competitive strategies (SO) are emphasized. Therefore, six strategies were proposed in this situation. The application of these strategies in the Nemat-Abad neighborhood provides the basis for the sustainability of various social, economic, physical, and environmental aspects and ultimately causes urban development and increases the life quality of the residents.