عنوان مقاله [English]
Paying attention to the fact that borders are often considered as an obstacle for the free movement of people and goods, they should be considered in practice on the one hand, in terms of territory (territory) and national development and security considerations, and on the other hand, in the socio-economic dimension. and between the fields of formal and informal activities in different areas of the settlement. On the other hand, borders are simply ignored in some cases, especially by the residents of cities and villages in such areas; The reason for this - in most cases - goes back to the existing conflict between national belonging to the mainland and cultural-religious similarity with the residents on the other side of the border; That is, the conflict between respecting the current laws in one's own country and belonging to "others" on the other side of the border. Border exchanges are one of the main aspects of communication and livelihood of border dwellers in neighboring countries. Historically, such exchanges have existed in countries like Iran in various ways over time, although they have found new dimensions in recent decades. In fact, the lack of production and infrastructure, lack of employment and unemployment, low income and capital, etc., in some border areas, have led to the significant tendency of border residents to engage in such activities. Thus, border exchanges in recent years have led to the formation of new flows and established networks at the local level. Although these networks have unofficially created internal and external links between settlements, they are constantly exposed to a kind of "fragility" due to the spontaneity and spontaneous transformation of these links. Organizing border exchanges in official formats and supporting active border dwellers in this field can lead to the development and security of borders. This article tries to show the role of cross-border exchanges in the formation process of different flows in the form of a regional network approach and their effectiveness in the spatial transformation of settlements in the framework of mostly rural settlements in the central part of Baneh (Kurdistan). The results of the research show that border interactions in Baneh district have not only fueled the various flows of people, capital, goods, information and innovation, but also the transformation of the context of settlements, including changes in the construction of housing and residential spaces, from a So, the evolution in employment opportunities and earning more income has led to the change of the socio-economic behavior of the residents.